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Transitional Justice in Tunisia, Implementaion and Challenges

Leonardsson, Linn LU (2015) JURM02 20151
Department of Law
Abstract
In the end 2010 uprisings in Tunisia led to the fall of the regime of Ben Ali who had governed Tunisia since 1987. After the fall of the government request regarding how to handle the past in form of a transitional justice process was made, mainly from civil society. In December 2013 a law on transitional justice was adopted that defines the period that the transitional justice process is aiming on from 1956 until 2013. In terms of truth seeking and criminal proceedings the law is regulating the establishment of a Truth and Dignity Commission and specialized chambers.

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the so far
implementation of, and the challenges for, the legal measures Tunisia has
been taking focusing on truth... (More)
In the end 2010 uprisings in Tunisia led to the fall of the regime of Ben Ali who had governed Tunisia since 1987. After the fall of the government request regarding how to handle the past in form of a transitional justice process was made, mainly from civil society. In December 2013 a law on transitional justice was adopted that defines the period that the transitional justice process is aiming on from 1956 until 2013. In terms of truth seeking and criminal proceedings the law is regulating the establishment of a Truth and Dignity Commission and specialized chambers.

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the so far
implementation of, and the challenges for, the legal measures Tunisia has
been taking focusing on truth seeking and criminal proceedings. This has
been done by a field study in Tunis during two months in the spring of
2015. The field study was partly financed by a Minor Field Study
scholarship from the Swedish government agency Sida. The field study
contained interviews with stakeholders from national civil society
organisations, international organisations, commissionaires in the Truth and Dignity Commission as well as observations on events concerning
transitional justice. Additional sources have been transitional justice
literature, reports, news articles and legal texts.

The process is quite new and so far the Truth and Dignity Commission has
been established and it has started to work and to receive files from victims. The specialized chambers have so far not been established and there are still questions regarding the composition and how to elect judges for them.

Furthermore the study found that among stakeholders in the transitional
justice process there a lot of disagreements both regarding the law on
transitional justice and on the Truth and Dignity Commission. Among the
stakeholders there are also a schism between the one that represents secular organisations and the ones that represent islamistic ones. This schism expresses itself partly in terms of disagreements on the law, which crimes should be included but also the periodical mandate of the transitional justice process. Certain fractions of the civil society wants to redraft the law while others rather sees a redrafting as adventuring the entire process.

Additionally, the study found a general concern among stakeholders that the new government elected in 2014 would not support the process.
The implementation of the transitional justice measures has begun even
though there are still questions to answer. There are several challenges for the on-going process; apart from the schism within the civil society there is more general problems within the Tunisian society, mainly economic challenges and security problems. All involved in the process is though aware of those challenges and a lot of work is done aiming on overcoming those obstacles (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I slutet av 2010 upplopp i Tunisien ledde till att den Ben Ali regimen som hade styrt Tunisien sedan 1987 föll. Efter regimens fall gjordes
efterfrågningar, till stor del från civilsamhället, angående hur man skulle hantera det förflutna i form av en process av övergångsrättvisa (transitional justice). I december 2013 antogs en lag om övergångsrättvisa. Lagen definierade perioden som skulle ingå i processen med början 1955 till 2013. Beträffande sanningssökande mekanismer och rättegångar reglerar lagen
upprättande av en Sannings- och värdighets kommission (Truth and Dignity
Commission) samt specialiserade kamrar (specialized chambers).
Denna uppsats primära syfte var att undersöka implementeringen av, och
framtida utmaningar för, de... (More)
I slutet av 2010 upplopp i Tunisien ledde till att den Ben Ali regimen som hade styrt Tunisien sedan 1987 föll. Efter regimens fall gjordes
efterfrågningar, till stor del från civilsamhället, angående hur man skulle hantera det förflutna i form av en process av övergångsrättvisa (transitional justice). I december 2013 antogs en lag om övergångsrättvisa. Lagen definierade perioden som skulle ingå i processen med början 1955 till 2013. Beträffande sanningssökande mekanismer och rättegångar reglerar lagen
upprättande av en Sannings- och värdighets kommission (Truth and Dignity
Commission) samt specialiserade kamrar (specialized chambers).
Denna uppsats primära syfte var att undersöka implementeringen av, och
framtida utmaningar för, de legala åtgärder tagna av Tunisien med ett fokus på sanningssökande och rättegångar. Detta har gjorts i formen av en
fältstudie i Tunisien under två månader under våren 2015. Fältstudien var
delvis finansierad av ett Minor Field Study stipendium från SIDA.
Fältstudien bestod av intervjuer med intressenter från nationella
civilsamhällsorganisationer, internationella organisationer och
kommissionärer från Sannings- och värdighetskommissionen men även
observationer av evenemang rörande övergångsrättvisa. Andra källor som
har använts har varit akademisk litteratur om övergångsrättvisa, rapporter, nyhetsartiklar och lagtexter.

Processen är fortfarande ny i Tunisien och hittills har Sanning- och
värdighetskommissionen etablerats. De specialiserade kamrarna har ännu
inte etablerats och det återstår frågor angående komponeringen av dessa och hur domare ska välja till dem.

Studien har vidare funnit att bland intressenter i processen av
övergångsrättvisa råder oenighet både gällande lagen om övergångsrättvisa
och Sannings- och värdighetskommissionen. Bland intressenterna finns en
schism mellan de som representerar sekulära organisationer och de som
representerar islamistiska organisationer, viken uttrycks delvis i oenighet om lagen, dels gällande vilka brott som ska ingå i processen men även perioden som processen behandlar. Delar av civilsamhället vill omformulera hela lagen medan andra ser en sådan manöver som et hot mot hela processen. Vidare har finns det en generell oro bland intressenter att den nya regeringen som valdes i december 2014 inte kommer att stödja processen.

Implementeringen av åtgärderna av övergångsrättvisa har påbörjats men det
finns fortfarande frågor som behöver besvaras. Det finns flera utmaningar
för den pågående processen, jämte schismen i civilsamhället finns mer
generella problem i det tunisiska samhället, de största ekonomiska- och
säkerhetsproblem. Alla involverade i processen är väl medvetna om detta
och mycket arbete görs för att klara dessa utmaningar. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Leonardsson, Linn LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Transitional Justice, Tunisia
language
English
id
5434663
date added to LUP
2015-10-08 14:11:00
date last changed
2015-10-08 14:11:00
@misc{5434663,
  abstract     = {In the end 2010 uprisings in Tunisia led to the fall of the regime of Ben Ali who had governed Tunisia since 1987. After the fall of the government request regarding how to handle the past in form of a transitional justice process was made, mainly from civil society. In December 2013 a law on transitional justice was adopted that defines the period that the transitional justice process is aiming on from 1956 until 2013. In terms of truth seeking and criminal proceedings the law is regulating the establishment of a Truth and Dignity Commission and specialized chambers.

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the so far
implementation of, and the challenges for, the legal measures Tunisia has
been taking focusing on truth seeking and criminal proceedings. This has
been done by a field study in Tunis during two months in the spring of
2015. The field study was partly financed by a Minor Field Study
scholarship from the Swedish government agency Sida. The field study
contained interviews with stakeholders from national civil society
organisations, international organisations, commissionaires in the Truth and Dignity Commission as well as observations on events concerning
transitional justice. Additional sources have been transitional justice
literature, reports, news articles and legal texts.

The process is quite new and so far the Truth and Dignity Commission has
been established and it has started to work and to receive files from victims. The specialized chambers have so far not been established and there are still questions regarding the composition and how to elect judges for them.

Furthermore the study found that among stakeholders in the transitional
justice process there a lot of disagreements both regarding the law on
transitional justice and on the Truth and Dignity Commission. Among the
stakeholders there are also a schism between the one that represents secular organisations and the ones that represent islamistic ones. This schism expresses itself partly in terms of disagreements on the law, which crimes should be included but also the periodical mandate of the transitional justice process. Certain fractions of the civil society wants to redraft the law while others rather sees a redrafting as adventuring the entire process.

Additionally, the study found a general concern among stakeholders that the new government elected in 2014 would not support the process.
The implementation of the transitional justice measures has begun even
though there are still questions to answer. There are several challenges for the on-going process; apart from the schism within the civil society there is more general problems within the Tunisian society, mainly economic challenges and security problems. All involved in the process is though aware of those challenges and a lot of work is done aiming on overcoming those obstacles},
  author       = {Leonardsson, Linn},
  keyword      = {Transitional Justice,Tunisia},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Transitional Justice in Tunisia, Implementaion and Challenges},
  year         = {2015},
}