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Lärarlegitimation och andra auktorisationssystem – Likheter, skillnader och skälen därtill

Ihd, Mårten LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den här texten behandlar auktorisationsregler, med ett särskilt fokus på lärarlegitimationer. Det huvudsakliga syftet är att avgöra om utformandet av lärarlegitimationsreformen var det riktiga för att uppnå syftet med reformen, men texten fungerar även som en sammanställning av gällande rätt. Det är särskilt viktigt för lärarlegitimationer, där reglerna aldrig satts i något sammanhang. De auktorisationssystemen som granskas är de för advokater, revisorer, läkare och fastighetsmäklare.

Metoden bygger på att jämföra tre områden för varje auktorisation. Det rör sig om vilka krav som ställs för att bli auktoriserad, vilka händelser som kan leda till återkallelse och andra disciplinåtgärder samt vilka förfaranderegler som finns för... (More)
Den här texten behandlar auktorisationsregler, med ett särskilt fokus på lärarlegitimationer. Det huvudsakliga syftet är att avgöra om utformandet av lärarlegitimationsreformen var det riktiga för att uppnå syftet med reformen, men texten fungerar även som en sammanställning av gällande rätt. Det är särskilt viktigt för lärarlegitimationer, där reglerna aldrig satts i något sammanhang. De auktorisationssystemen som granskas är de för advokater, revisorer, läkare och fastighetsmäklare.

Metoden bygger på att jämföra tre områden för varje auktorisation. Det rör sig om vilka krav som ställs för att bli auktoriserad, vilka händelser som kan leda till återkallelse och andra disciplinåtgärder samt vilka förfaranderegler som finns för processen. Baserat på de skillnader som finns i regleringarna avgörs sedan om de val som gjordes kring lärarlegitimation var de rätta.

Lärarlegitimation är ett krav för att lärare ska få undervisa och sätta betyg, och bara legitimerade lärare kan tillsvidareanställas. För att bli legitimerad krävs en behörighetsberättigande examen, samt att inga av återkallelsegrunderna föreligger vid ansökningstillfället. De disciplinåtgärder som används för lärare är varning och återkallelse. Påföljd kan utdömas vid förtroendepåverkande brottslighet, vid oskicklighet i yrkesutövningen, när en lärare är olämplig och vid sjukdom som omöjliggör undervisning. Skolinspektionen driver ärenden i Lärarnas ansvarsnämnd, vars beslut kan överklagas av läraren och skolinspektionen.

Läkare har ett auktorisationssystem som liknar lärares, och är till stor grad förlagan till det senare. Legitimerade läkare måste dock genomgå en introduktionsperiod, den så kallade AT-tjänsten. Återkallelsegrunderna är likadana, men påföljderna istället återkallelse och prövotid, där det senare är en särskild påföljd i vårdyrkena, där den legitimerade åläggs att följa en prövotidsplan.

Revisorer, fastighetsmäklare och advokater har sinsemellan liknande regleringar. Till stor del utgår bedömning kring disciplinåtgärder från god sed i respektive yrke. Det finns inte specifika återkallelsegrunder, utan snarare en allmän lämplighetsprövning som delvis tar hänsyn till brottslighet. Ekonomisk lämplighet är central i bedömningen. De tre yrkesgrupperna använder återkallelse, varning och erinran. För advokater finns även en straffavgift och ett uttalande som möjliga påföljder. Advokaters disciplinverksamhet skiljer sig något i att Advokatsamfundet inte är en myndighet, men det har liten praktiskt verkan.

Till stor del kan de skillnader som finns i regleringarna motiveras med att läraryrket är annorlunda, särskilt vad gäller ekonomiska frågor. Läkare ligger närmare lärare än något annat auktorisationsyrke, och det är därmed logiskt att utgå ifrån dess reglering.

Vissa beslut som gjordes kan i mitt tycke ifrågasättas, främst valet av återkallelsegrunder och slopandet av introduktionsperioden för nyutexaminerade lärare, men överlag är reformen utformad på ett effektivt sätt. Alternativen är inte garanterade att vara bättre, och det finns exempel på liknande lösningar som fungerar väl i andra yrken. (Less)
Abstract
This text is a treatment on occupational licensing, with a focus on certification for teachers. The main purpose is to determine if the format used when the certification was implemented in 2011 was the right way to accomplish the purpose of the reform. The text also works as a summary of applicable law, which is important regarding teachers, since it has never been done before. The examined occupations are accountants, physicians, real estate agents and lawyers (Advokater).

The method of the text is to compare three areas for each occupation. Firstly: the requirements to become licensed. Secondly: the situations which could lead to revocation and other disciplinary actions. Thirdly: the rules of procedure during cases. Based on the... (More)
This text is a treatment on occupational licensing, with a focus on certification for teachers. The main purpose is to determine if the format used when the certification was implemented in 2011 was the right way to accomplish the purpose of the reform. The text also works as a summary of applicable law, which is important regarding teachers, since it has never been done before. The examined occupations are accountants, physicians, real estate agents and lawyers (Advokater).

The method of the text is to compare three areas for each occupation. Firstly: the requirements to become licensed. Secondly: the situations which could lead to revocation and other disciplinary actions. Thirdly: the rules of procedure during cases. Based on the differences between the regulations, the choices that were made for teachers will be examined.

Teachers need to be certified to teach and grade students, and only certified teachers can be employed until further notice (Tillsvidareanställda). To become certified, a teacher needs an appropriate academic degree. Also, none of the situations which may lead to a revoked certificate can be in effect. The possible disciplinary actions for teachers are withdrawal or a warning, which can be used in cases where teachers have committed crimes, are unskilled or unsuitable for the occupation or a disease makes teaching impossible. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate handles the process in the Teachers' Disciplinary Board, whose decisions can be appealed by the affected teacher or the Inspectorate.

Physicians operate under a similar system of licensing as teachers, which was used as a model for the latter. However, to become licensed, physicians need to complete an introductory period. The grounds of withdrawal are the same as for teachers, but the penalties are withdrawal and a period of probation, during which the physician can be obliged to follow a certain plan to improve their performance.

Accountants, real estate agents and lawyers have similar regulations between themselves. To a large degree, decisions regarding disciplinary actions are based on sound practice in each occupation. They lack specific grounds for revocation, and instead use a wider assessment of suitability that partially considers crimes committed. Economic suitability is especially important compared to teachers and physicians. All three use revocation, warnings and admonition. For lawyers, there are also financial penalties and the less severe statement. The disciplinary process of lawyers also differs slightly in that The Swedish Bar Association, which is not a government agency, is responsible for it.

For the most part, the differences that exist in the regulations can be explained by that the teaching profession is unlike the others, especially in economic matters. A physician’s role is closer to that of the teacher, and it’s reasonable to make the regulations similar.

Some decisions that were made can be questioned, primarily the choice of penalties and the abolishment of the introductory period for new teachers, but overall the reform was designed efficiently. The other options were not guaranteed to be better, and there are examples of similar solutions in other professions that work well. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ihd, Mårten LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Certification of Teachers and other Occupational Licenses – Similarities, Differences and the Reasons thereto
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt, auktorisation, lärarlegitimation
language
Swedish
id
5435271
date added to LUP
2015-06-09 11:17:05
date last changed
2015-06-09 11:17:05
@misc{5435271,
  abstract     = {This text is a treatment on occupational licensing, with a focus on certification for teachers. The main purpose is to determine if the format used when the certification was implemented in 2011 was the right way to accomplish the purpose of the reform. The text also works as a summary of applicable law, which is important regarding teachers, since it has never been done before. The examined occupations are accountants, physicians, real estate agents and lawyers (Advokater).

The method of the text is to compare three areas for each occupation. Firstly: the requirements to become licensed. Secondly: the situations which could lead to revocation and other disciplinary actions. Thirdly: the rules of procedure during cases. Based on the differences between the regulations, the choices that were made for teachers will be examined.

Teachers need to be certified to teach and grade students, and only certified teachers can be employed until further notice (Tillsvidareanställda). To become certified, a teacher needs an appropriate academic degree. Also, none of the situations which may lead to a revoked certificate can be in effect. The possible disciplinary actions for teachers are withdrawal or a warning, which can be used in cases where teachers have committed crimes, are unskilled or unsuitable for the occupation or a disease makes teaching impossible. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate handles the process in the Teachers' Disciplinary Board, whose decisions can be appealed by the affected teacher or the Inspectorate.

Physicians operate under a similar system of licensing as teachers, which was used as a model for the latter. However, to become licensed, physicians need to complete an introductory period. The grounds of withdrawal are the same as for teachers, but the penalties are withdrawal and a period of probation, during which the physician can be obliged to follow a certain plan to improve their performance.

Accountants, real estate agents and lawyers have similar regulations between themselves. To a large degree, decisions regarding disciplinary actions are based on sound practice in each occupation. They lack specific grounds for revocation, and instead use a wider assessment of suitability that partially considers crimes committed. Economic suitability is especially important compared to teachers and physicians. All three use revocation, warnings and admonition. For lawyers, there are also financial penalties and the less severe statement. The disciplinary process of lawyers also differs slightly in that The Swedish Bar Association, which is not a government agency, is responsible for it.

For the most part, the differences that exist in the regulations can be explained by that the teaching profession is unlike the others, especially in economic matters. A physician’s role is closer to that of the teacher, and it’s reasonable to make the regulations similar.

Some decisions that were made can be questioned, primarily the choice of penalties and the abolishment of the introductory period for new teachers, but overall the reform was designed efficiently. The other options were not guaranteed to be better, and there are examples of similar solutions in other professions that work well.},
  author       = {Ihd, Mårten},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt,auktorisation,lärarlegitimation},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Lärarlegitimation och andra auktorisationssystem – Likheter, skillnader och skälen därtill},
  year         = {2015},
}