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Felaktiga domar, hur är det egentligen med rättssäkerheten?

Andersson, Elinor LU (2015) JUR092 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I Sverige råder principen om fri bevisföring, vilken stadgas i 35 kap. 1 § RB. Detta innebär att det inte finns någon begränsning vare sig gällande de kunskapskällor som får användas för att bevisa det inträffade, eller gällande domarens frihet vid själva värderingen av bevisen. I doktrinen finns olika bevisvärderingsmetoder beskrivna. De som ofta diskuteras är temametoden, värdemetoden samt hypotesmetoden.

Trots att bevisvärderingen inom det svenska rättssystemet skall vara fri, uppställer förarbetena vissa krav på bedömningens kvalitet. I dessa kan bland annat utläsas att bedömningen ska vara objektiv.

Ett åtal ska vara ställt utom rimligt tvivel för att den tilltalades ska dömas till ansvar för den åtalade gärningen. Beviskravet... (More)
I Sverige råder principen om fri bevisföring, vilken stadgas i 35 kap. 1 § RB. Detta innebär att det inte finns någon begränsning vare sig gällande de kunskapskällor som får användas för att bevisa det inträffade, eller gällande domarens frihet vid själva värderingen av bevisen. I doktrinen finns olika bevisvärderingsmetoder beskrivna. De som ofta diskuteras är temametoden, värdemetoden samt hypotesmetoden.

Trots att bevisvärderingen inom det svenska rättssystemet skall vara fri, uppställer förarbetena vissa krav på bedömningens kvalitet. I dessa kan bland annat utläsas att bedömningen ska vara objektiv.

Ett åtal ska vara ställt utom rimligt tvivel för att den tilltalades ska dömas till ansvar för den åtalade gärningen. Beviskravet är det som placerar ribban för när domsten ska fria eller fälla en åtalad. Det är åklagaren som har bevisbördan och ska visa att det är ställt utom rimligt tvivel att den åtalade handlat enligt gärningsbeskrivningen.

Rättssäkerhet och rättstrygghet tas upp i framställningen. Ett allt för högt beviskrav leder till att få döms för brott som de begått, ett för lågt beviskrav å andra sidan leder till att människor lättare döms för brott de faktiskt inte begått. Därför måste en balans hittas mellan dessa två kontraster. Bestämmelserna kring resning bygger på en avvägning mellan orubblighetsprincipen och sanningsprincipen. Det inträffar ibland att det finns starka skäl att ifrågasätta ett avgörandes riktighet. Resningsinstitutet är en möjlighet för rättssystemet att korrigera dessa felaktigheter.

Sammantaget har jag kommit fram till att det inte går att ge någon precis beskrivning av vad som krävs för en fällande dom. Eftersom vi tillämpar fri bevisprövning och fri bevisföring i svensk processrätt kan inget klart svar ges. (Less)
Abstract
In Sweden there is the principle of freedom of evidence, witch is provided in chapter 35. 1 § RB. This means that there is no restriction regarding the sources of knowledge that may be used to prove the incident or regarding the judge's discretion in the evaluation of the evidence. There are various evidence-methods described in the doctrine. The most discussed methods are the method of theme, the method of value and the method of hypothesis.

Despite that the evaluation of evidence whitin the Swedish legal system shall be free, the preliminary work contains certain requirements of judging quality. This may among other things include that the assessment must be objective.

A prosecution must be established beyond reasonable doubt that... (More)
In Sweden there is the principle of freedom of evidence, witch is provided in chapter 35. 1 § RB. This means that there is no restriction regarding the sources of knowledge that may be used to prove the incident or regarding the judge's discretion in the evaluation of the evidence. There are various evidence-methods described in the doctrine. The most discussed methods are the method of theme, the method of value and the method of hypothesis.

Despite that the evaluation of evidence whitin the Swedish legal system shall be free, the preliminary work contains certain requirements of judging quality. This may among other things include that the assessment must be objective.

A prosecution must be established beyond reasonable doubt that the accused be sentenced to the liability of the defendant offense. The requirement of proof determine if the accused should be guilty or not. It is the prosecutor who has the burden of proof and must prove that it is beyond reasonable doubt that the accused acted according to the deed description

Legal certainty and legal security are described in the petition.

A high requirement of proof leads to less sentenced for crimes they committed and a low requirement of proof leads to more sentenced that not actually committed the crime. That is why a balance must be found between these two contrasts.The provisions regarding a stature is based on a balance of the principle of unwavering and the principle of truth.It sometimes happens that there are strong reasons to question the accuracy of the determination. The institute of a new trial is an opportunity for the justice system to correct these errors.

Overall, I have come to the conclusion that it is not possible to give any precise description of what is required for a conviction. Since we apply the free assessment of evidence and free proof in Swedish procedural law can no clear answer is given. It is diffucult to give a clear answer since we apply the free assessment of evidence and free production of evidence in Swedish procedural law. (Less)
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author
Andersson, Elinor LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Incorrect convictions, how is it with the legal security?
course
JUR092 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
report number
48
language
Swedish
id
5435375
date added to LUP
2015-06-01 16:24:07
date last changed
2017-01-27 15:52:06
@misc{5435375,
  abstract     = {In Sweden there is the principle of freedom of evidence, witch is provided in chapter 35. 1 § RB. This means that there is no restriction regarding the sources of knowledge that may be used to prove the incident or regarding the judge's discretion in the evaluation of the evidence. There are various evidence-methods described in the doctrine. The most discussed methods are the method of theme, the method of value and the method of hypothesis.

Despite that the evaluation of evidence whitin the Swedish legal system shall be free, the preliminary work contains certain requirements of judging quality. This may among other things include that the assessment must be objective.

A prosecution must be established beyond reasonable doubt that the accused be sentenced to the liability of the defendant offense. The requirement of proof determine if the accused should be guilty or not. It is the prosecutor who has the burden of proof and must prove that it is beyond reasonable doubt that the accused acted according to the deed description

Legal certainty and legal security are described in the petition.

A high requirement of proof leads to less sentenced for crimes they committed and a low requirement of proof leads to more sentenced that not actually committed the crime. That is why a balance must be found between these two contrasts.The provisions regarding a stature is based on a balance of the principle of unwavering and the principle of truth.It sometimes happens that there are strong reasons to question the accuracy of the determination. The institute of a new trial is an opportunity for the justice system to correct these errors.

Overall, I have come to the conclusion that it is not possible to give any precise description of what is required for a conviction. Since we apply the free assessment of evidence and free proof in Swedish procedural law can no clear answer is given. It is diffucult to give a clear answer since we apply the free assessment of evidence and free production of evidence in Swedish procedural law.},
  author       = {Andersson, Elinor},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Felaktiga domar, hur är det egentligen med rättssäkerheten?},
  year         = {2015},
}