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Sekundosuccessorns rätt

Petersen, Emily LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats utgör undertecknads examensarbete vid juristprogrammet på Lunds universitet. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att utreda vad sekundosuccessorerna har för rätt och skydd genom den svenska lagstiftningen.

Ur ett arvshistoriskt perspektiv har efterlevande make haft väldigt svaga rättigheter. Efterlevande makes och bröstarvingarnas intressen stod mot varandra. I början på 1900- talet ansågs tiden ännu inte vara mogen för att införa en starkare arvsrätt för efterlevande make och därmed i motsvarande mån försvaga bröstarvingarnas skydd, som på den tiden fick ut sin laglott omedelbart efter ena förälderns död. Efterlevande make ärver idag med fri förfoganderätt efter sin make, och bröstarvingarna får vänta på sitt arv tills... (More)
Denna uppsats utgör undertecknads examensarbete vid juristprogrammet på Lunds universitet. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att utreda vad sekundosuccessorerna har för rätt och skydd genom den svenska lagstiftningen.

Ur ett arvshistoriskt perspektiv har efterlevande make haft väldigt svaga rättigheter. Efterlevande makes och bröstarvingarnas intressen stod mot varandra. I början på 1900- talet ansågs tiden ännu inte vara mogen för att införa en starkare arvsrätt för efterlevande make och därmed i motsvarande mån försvaga bröstarvingarnas skydd, som på den tiden fick ut sin laglott omedelbart efter ena förälderns död. Efterlevande make ärver idag med fri förfoganderätt efter sin make, och bröstarvingarna får vänta på sitt arv tills efterlevande make avlider. Idag anses reglerna ha rotat sig i befolkningens rättsuppfattning, men intressekonflikten kan sägas ha förskjutits från att ha varit mellan efterlevande make och gemensamma bröstarvingar, till att vara mellan efterlevande make och särkullbarn.

Särkullbarn har rätt att få ut sin laglott omgående då förälder avlider. Det kan medföra problem för efterlevande make att lösa ut särkullbarnen. Flera motioner, SOU:er och propositioner om att ytterligare stärka efterlevande makes skydd och behandla gemensamma bröstarvingar och särkullbarn på samma sätt vittnar om ett ökat intresse att sänka skyddet för särkullbarn.

Om en förälder avlider och efterlevande make träffar en ny partner, gifter sig och skaffar barn blir barnen i det första äktenskapet särkullbarn. Efterlevande make ärver med fri förfoganderätt och barnen (som numera är särkullbarn) har rätt att få sitt arv först då efterlevande make avlider. Efterlevande make kan välja att, på särkullbarnens arvsrättsliga bekostnad, gynna barnen i det nya äktenskapet och när det väl är dags för särkullbarnen att få sitt arv finns det risk att det inte finns några pengar kvar.

Laglotten är väl rotad i befolkningens rättsuppfattning och har under flera decennier ifrågasatts och det har undersökts huruvida den har spelat ut sin roll. När laglotten infördes i svensk rätt fanns ett behov av att säkra att exempelvis släktgårdar stannade inom familjen. Barnen var betydligt yngre och i behov av försörjning när föräldrarna avled. I flera statliga utredningar, under flera decennier, har konstaterats att laglotten inte har samma syfte som den ursprungligen har haft. Däremot anses laglotten fortfarande ha en viktig funktion i arvsrätten, skälen för att inte avskaffa den är flera. Dels bekräftar laglotten det sociala och ekonomiska band bröstarvingar och föräldrar har mellan varandra, men framförallt säkrar den en jämn fördelning mellan bröstarvingarna. I flera utredningar drar man slutsatsen att i familjer där det finns barn födda i olika kullar föreligger det högre sannolikt att föräldrar önskar gynna barnen från det senare äktenskapet. Särkullbarnens arvsrättsliga skydd skulle bli svagare om laglotten avskaffades och genom att möjligheterna för föräldrar att arvsplanera skulle öka skulle sekundosuccessorerna troligen drabbas hårdast av alla bröstarvingar. (Less)
Abstract
This essay represents the undersigned's master thesis at the Mastar of Law program at Lund University. The aim of the thesis is to investigate what legal rights and protection a secondary successor has under Swedish law. 

From an inheritance historical perspective, the surviving spouse had very weak legal rights. Surviving spouses and direct heirs had opposing interests. In the early 1900s the time was not ripe for introducing a stronger inheritance right for surviving spouses, and thus correspondingly weaker right for the direct heirs. At the time, direct heir received their legal portion (Sw. laglott) immediately after one of the parent's death. Under Swedish law as of today, the surviving spouse inherits with free right of... (More)
This essay represents the undersigned's master thesis at the Mastar of Law program at Lund University. The aim of the thesis is to investigate what legal rights and protection a secondary successor has under Swedish law. 

From an inheritance historical perspective, the surviving spouse had very weak legal rights. Surviving spouses and direct heirs had opposing interests. In the early 1900s the time was not ripe for introducing a stronger inheritance right for surviving spouses, and thus correspondingly weaker right for the direct heirs. At the time, direct heir received their legal portion (Sw. laglott) immediately after one of the parent's death. Under Swedish law as of today, the surviving spouse inherits with free right of disposition, and the direct heirs must wait for their inheritance until the surviving spouse dies. This is considered to reflect people's view of the law, but the conflict of interest has changed from being between the surviving spouse and direct heirs, to be between the surviving spouse and children from a previous marriage. 

Children from a previous marriage are entitled to have their legal portion immediately when a parent dies. It may be problematic for the surviving spouse to bail out children from a previous marriage. Motions and suggestions from politicians to further strengthen the surviving spouse's legal protection and treat direct heirs and children from a previous marriage equally, indicate an increasing interest in lowering the legal protection of children from a previous marriage.

If a parent dies and the surviving spouse marry a new partner, and has new children, the children from the first marriage are now legally seen as children from a previous marriage. A surviving spouse inherits with free right of disposition and children (who are now legally children from previous marriage) are entitled to receive their inheritance earliest when the surviving spouse dies.

Legal portion is well-rooted in people's view of the law, but it has for decades been questioned and investigated whether it has outlived its usefulness. When the legal portion was introduced in Swedish law there was a need to ensure that, for example, family farms stayed within the family. The children were much younger and in need of supply when their parents died. In several governmental investigations, it has for decades been stated that the legal portion does not have the same purpose as it originally had. However the legal portion is considered to still have an important role in the succession law, and there are many reasons for not eliminating it.

The legal portion consolidates the financial and social ties between direct heirs and parents and above all it ensures an even distribution of inheritance between the direct heirs. In several studies it is concluded that in families with children born in different marriages, there is a higher likelihood that parents economically favor children from the latter marriage. The inheritance legal protection would be weaker for the children from a previous marriage if the legal portion was abolished. The opportunities for parents to plan the inheritance would increase which probably would affect the secondary successors hardest of all the direct heirs. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Petersen, Emily LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Legal rights of the secondary successor
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
5435571
date added to LUP
2015-06-22 13:11:49
date last changed
2015-06-22 13:11:51
@misc{5435571,
  abstract     = {This essay represents the undersigned's master thesis at the Mastar of Law program at Lund University. The aim of the thesis is to investigate what legal rights and protection a secondary successor has under Swedish law.  
  
From an inheritance historical perspective, the surviving spouse had very weak legal rights. Surviving spouses and direct heirs had opposing interests. In the early 1900s the time was not ripe for introducing a stronger inheritance right for surviving spouses, and thus correspondingly weaker right for the direct heirs. At the time, direct heir received their legal portion (Sw. laglott) immediately after one of the parent's death. Under Swedish law as of today, the surviving spouse inherits with free right of disposition, and the direct heirs must wait for their inheritance until the surviving spouse dies. This is considered to reflect people's view of the law, but the conflict of interest has changed from being between the surviving spouse and direct heirs, to be between the surviving spouse and children from a previous marriage.  
  
Children from a previous marriage are entitled to have their legal portion immediately when a parent dies. It may be problematic for the surviving spouse to bail out children from a previous marriage. Motions and suggestions from politicians to further strengthen the surviving spouse's legal protection and treat direct heirs and children from a previous marriage equally, indicate an increasing interest in lowering the legal protection of children from a previous marriage. 
  
If a parent dies and the surviving spouse marry a new partner, and has new children, the children from the first marriage are now legally seen as children from a previous marriage. A surviving spouse inherits with free right of disposition and children (who are now legally children from previous marriage) are entitled to receive their inheritance earliest when the surviving spouse dies. 
 
Legal portion is well-rooted in people's view of the law, but it has for decades been questioned and investigated whether it has outlived its usefulness. When the legal portion was introduced in Swedish law there was a need to ensure that, for example, family farms stayed within the family. The children were much younger and in need of supply when their parents died. In several governmental investigations, it has for decades been stated that the legal portion does not have the same purpose as it originally had. However the legal portion is considered to still have an important role in the succession law, and there are many reasons for not eliminating it. 
 
The legal portion consolidates the financial and social ties between direct heirs and parents and above all it ensures an even distribution of inheritance between the direct heirs. In several studies it is concluded that in families with children born in different marriages, there is a higher likelihood that parents economically favor children from the latter marriage. The inheritance legal protection would be weaker for the children from a previous marriage if the legal portion was abolished. The opportunities for parents to plan the inheritance would increase which probably would affect the secondary successors hardest of all the direct heirs.},
  author       = {Petersen, Emily},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sekundosuccessorns rätt},
  year         = {2015},
}