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Secondary organic aerosol formation in automobile exhaust, investigated by mass spectrometry.

Brolin, Angelica LU (2015) FYSM60 20151
Department of Physics
Abstract
Abstract
The behavior of automobile exhaust is well known through combustion science, but the potential health and environmental risks of secondary exhaust particles (created by solar irradiation) and soot are less well understood. Primary pollutants (raw exhaust) react in the atmosphere when irradiated by the Sun creating secondary pollutants (Secondary organic aerosols, SOA). The purpose of this work is to investigate the creation of exhaust SOA. This project is divided into three steps. First the content of exhaust is investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in order to establish the content and a storage method of an exhaust sample. Second, synchrotron radiation and a multichannel time of flight spectrometer (MCTOF) are... (More)
Abstract
The behavior of automobile exhaust is well known through combustion science, but the potential health and environmental risks of secondary exhaust particles (created by solar irradiation) and soot are less well understood. Primary pollutants (raw exhaust) react in the atmosphere when irradiated by the Sun creating secondary pollutants (Secondary organic aerosols, SOA). The purpose of this work is to investigate the creation of exhaust SOA. This project is divided into three steps. First the content of exhaust is investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in order to establish the content and a storage method of an exhaust sample. Second, synchrotron radiation and a multichannel time of flight spectrometer (MCTOF) are used to study photolysis of exhaust. In this work the creation of exhaust SOA could not be verified, it can be a matter of detection technique or the fact that none was created. Third, benzene, a molecule known to form SOA [1] was investigated in order to establish what to search for in future exhaust studies. A software program called ANACONDA was used to identify the different masses and fragmentation of the appearing compounds. In earlier studies of exhaust, the $C_3H_3^+$ and $C_5H_3^+$ fragments were found and identified to come from aromatics [1]. In this work it was found that those two fragments occur in the benzene experiments, confirming that those fragments belong to benzene. It was also found that the behavior of benzene undergoing photolysis in both the UV and X-ray region agrees with earlier studies [2][3]. The UV-region is most relevant in this work since it occurs in the atmosphere, but the X-ray region was studied briefly for comparison. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Swedish)
{swedish}
\section*{Sammanfattning}
Människans vardagliga liv bygger på transport av olika fordon som drivs med bensin eller diesel. Som bekant för de flesta människor idag bidrar avgaserna till negativa konsekvenser för miljön. Det är mindre känt att dessa avgaser reagerar i atmosfären där de under belysning av solens ultravioletta strålar bildar nya föreningar, så kallade sekundära organiska aerosoler. I det här arbetet försökte man skapa och detektera sekundära organiska aerosoler med hjälp av masspektrometri och synkrotronljus. Experimenten utfördes i tre steg: först undersöktes innehållet i ett avgasprov med en Kvadropolmasspektrometer. I steg två användes synkrotronljus och en Löptidsspektrometer för att skapa och detektera... (More)
{swedish}
\section*{Sammanfattning}
Människans vardagliga liv bygger på transport av olika fordon som drivs med bensin eller diesel. Som bekant för de flesta människor idag bidrar avgaserna till negativa konsekvenser för miljön. Det är mindre känt att dessa avgaser reagerar i atmosfären där de under belysning av solens ultravioletta strålar bildar nya föreningar, så kallade sekundära organiska aerosoler. I det här arbetet försökte man skapa och detektera sekundära organiska aerosoler med hjälp av masspektrometri och synkrotronljus. Experimenten utfördes i tre steg: först undersöktes innehållet i ett avgasprov med en Kvadropolmasspektrometer. I steg två användes synkrotronljus och en Löptidsspektrometer för att skapa och detektera sekundära organiska aerosoler. Existensen av sekundära aerosoler kunde inte verifieras i detta arbete, och i ett tredje steg undersöktes bensen, en molekyl som är känd [1] att vara reaktiv i skapandet av sekundära organiska aerosoler. Man vet hur bensen beter sig och får därmed en fingervisning om vad man ska leta efter i framtida avgasstudier. Dataanalysen gjordes i matlabprogrammet ANACONDA skrivet av Joakim Laksman. I tidigare avgasstudier [1] detekterades det två fragmenten $C_3H_3^+$ och $C_5H_3^+$ som identifierades som aromatiska kolväten. I det här arbetet bekräftades de vara bensenfragment. Bensen, resultaten både i UV-området och röntgen-området, uppför sig likt tidigare studier [2],[3]. UV-regionen är mest relevant i det här arbetet, men röntgen-området undersöktes kort för en jämförelse mellan dem. (Less)
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author
Brolin, Angelica LU
supervisor
organization
course
FYSM60 20151
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
language
Swedish
id
5467213
date added to LUP
2015-06-05 19:46:54
date last changed
2015-06-05 19:46:54
@misc{5467213,
  abstract     = {Abstract
The behavior of automobile exhaust is well known through combustion science, but the potential health and environmental risks of secondary exhaust particles (created by solar irradiation) and soot are less well understood. Primary pollutants (raw exhaust) react in the atmosphere when irradiated by the Sun creating secondary pollutants (Secondary organic aerosols, SOA). The purpose of this work is to investigate the creation of exhaust SOA. This project is divided into three steps. First the content of exhaust is investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in order to establish the content and a storage method of an exhaust sample. Second, synchrotron radiation and a multichannel time of flight spectrometer (MCTOF) are used to study photolysis of exhaust. In this work the creation of exhaust SOA could not be verified, it can be a matter of detection technique or the fact that none was created. Third, benzene, a molecule known to form SOA [1] was investigated in order to establish what to search for in future exhaust studies. A software program called ANACONDA was used to identify the different masses and fragmentation of the appearing compounds. In earlier studies of exhaust, the $C_3H_3^+$ and $C_5H_3^+$ fragments were found and identified to come from aromatics [1]. In this work it was found that those two fragments occur in the benzene experiments, confirming that those fragments belong to benzene. It was also found that the behavior of benzene undergoing photolysis in both the UV and X-ray region agrees with earlier studies [2][3]. The UV-region is most relevant in this work since it occurs in the atmosphere, but the X-ray region was studied briefly for comparison.},
  author       = {Brolin, Angelica},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Secondary organic aerosol formation in automobile exhaust, investigated by mass spectrometry.},
  year         = {2015},
}