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Konstgjorda barn och oäkta föräldrar? Den assisterade befruktningens och surrogatmödraskapets rättsetiska dilemman.

Lidholm, Anja LU (2015) JURM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar de argument och ställningstaganden som ligger bakom lagstiftarens beslut beträffande assisterad befruktning i allmänhet, och surrogatmoderskap i synnerhet. Den alternativa familjebildningen och den assisterade befruktningens historia går långt tillbaka i tiden, men började på allvar regleras på 1980-talet, då inseminationsutredningen grundligt utredde frågan.

Variationsfloran för assisterad befruktning är stor, men teknikerna utgår till största delen från två grunder – insemination eller in vitro fertilization, IVF. Surrogatmödraskap används ofta av ofrivilligt barnlösa som en sista väg till familjebildning, när alla andra möjligheter uttömts. Surrogatmodern kan antingen insemineras, eller behandlas genom... (More)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar de argument och ställningstaganden som ligger bakom lagstiftarens beslut beträffande assisterad befruktning i allmänhet, och surrogatmoderskap i synnerhet. Den alternativa familjebildningen och den assisterade befruktningens historia går långt tillbaka i tiden, men började på allvar regleras på 1980-talet, då inseminationsutredningen grundligt utredde frågan.

Variationsfloran för assisterad befruktning är stor, men teknikerna utgår till största delen från två grunder – insemination eller in vitro fertilization, IVF. Surrogatmödraskap används ofta av ofrivilligt barnlösa som en sista väg till familjebildning, när alla andra möjligheter uttömts. Surrogatmodern kan antingen insemineras, eller behandlas genom IVF, beroende på vilken form av surrogatmödraskap man vill använda. Metoden är dock kontroversiell – så mycket att lagstiftaren fram till år 2012 kategoriskt vägrat ta i frågan med tång, och metoden är såldes fortfarande inte legaliserad i Sverige. En trippelsamverkan mellan olika lagrum gör att metoden i praktiken inte heller kan genomföras i Sverige, även om den inte uttryckligen är förbjuden i lag.

Ämnet är dock idag högaktuellt, då regeringen i maj 2015, just som uppsatsen skrivs, överlämnade en remiss till Lagrådet, vari ensamstående kvinnor föreslås ge rätt till insemination i Sverige. Remissen bygger på ett delbetänkande av utredningen om utökade möjligheter till behandling av ofrivillig barnlöshet, varibland möjligheterna till legalisering av surrogatmödraskapet ingår. Huvudbetänkandet skall lämnas senast i december 2015.

Uppsatsen går översiktligt igenom vilka metoder för assisterad befruktning som idag står till buds för ofrivilligt barnlösa. Då fler metoder är under utveckling, redogörs även för dessa. Tyngden i uppsatsen läggs dock på att undersöka de argument och rättsprinciper som lagstiftaren använt sig av vid den rättsliga regleringen av området, samt på att granska den intensiva debatt som förts om ämnet. De tyngsta argumenten har lyfts fram, och undersöks ur flera vinklar. I framställningens sista kapitel görs en mer djupgående analys och sammanfattning av de viktigaste argumenten, och jag redogör för min egen inställning i frågan. (Less)
Abstract
The thesis at hand deals with the arguments and positions underlying the legislators decisions concerning Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in general, and surrogate motherhood in particular. The history of alternative ways to start a family, and ART goes far back. However, it only really began to be the subject of regulation in the 1980s, when the government issued an investigation, to thoroughly investigate the matter of ART.

The variation of the methods of ART is substantial, but the techniques are mainly based on two basic methods - insemination or in vitro fertilization, IVF. Surrogacy arrangements are often used by the infertile couple as the last resort to form a family when all other possibilities have failed. The... (More)
The thesis at hand deals with the arguments and positions underlying the legislators decisions concerning Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in general, and surrogate motherhood in particular. The history of alternative ways to start a family, and ART goes far back. However, it only really began to be the subject of regulation in the 1980s, when the government issued an investigation, to thoroughly investigate the matter of ART.

The variation of the methods of ART is substantial, but the techniques are mainly based on two basic methods - insemination or in vitro fertilization, IVF. Surrogacy arrangements are often used by the infertile couple as the last resort to form a family when all other possibilities have failed. The surrogate mother may either be inseminated or treated by IVF, depending on which form of surrogacy arrangement the couple and surrogate mother want to use. The method, however, is controversial - so much that the Swedish legislature until the year of 2012 categorically refused to handle the topic of it. Still surrogacy arrangements are not legalized in Sweden. An interaction between three different sections in the Swedish law makes it so, that the method in practice cannot be performed in Sweden, even if not expressly prohibited.

The topic, however, is highly relevant as the government in May 2015 - just as this essay is being written - submitted a referral to the council of Legislation, in which single women are proposed to gain the right to ART in Sweden. The referral is based on an interim report from the government inquiry regarding the options and possibilities to expand the treatment of infertility. The main report, in which the issues regarding the possibility to legalize surrogacy arrangements are included, is to be submitted no later than December 2015.

The thesis briefly describes the methods of ART currently available to those suffering from infertility or who otherwise are having difficulties to conceive. As more methods of ART presently are being developed, a few of them will also be presented in the essay. The main aim of the paper, however, is to examine the arguments and basic principles of law that the legislators used when regulating the topic and matters at hand, as well as examining the intense and sometimes heated debate regarding the subject. The key concerns are highlighted and examined from several angles. The last chapter of the thesis provides for an in-depth analysis and summary of the main arguments. It also explains and states my own position on the matter. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lidholm, Anja LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Artificial children and illegitimate parents? The leagl and ethical dilemmas os Assisted Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy Motherhood.
course
JURM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
barnets bästa, människovärdesprincipen, lag (2006:351) om genetisk integritet, assisterad befruktning, surrogatmoderskap, surrogatmödraskap, Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
7409842
date added to LUP
2015-06-24 14:45:40
date last changed
2015-06-24 14:45:40
@misc{7409842,
  abstract     = {The thesis at hand deals with the arguments and positions underlying the legislators decisions concerning Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in general, and surrogate motherhood in particular. The history of alternative ways to start a family, and ART goes far back. However, it only really began to be the subject of regulation in the 1980s, when the government issued an investigation, to thoroughly investigate the matter of ART. 

The variation of the methods of ART is substantial, but the techniques are mainly based on two basic methods - insemination or in vitro fertilization, IVF. Surrogacy arrangements are often used by the infertile couple as the last resort to form a family when all other possibilities have failed. The surrogate mother may either be inseminated or treated by IVF, depending on which form of surrogacy arrangement the couple and surrogate mother want to use. The method, however, is controversial - so much that the Swedish legislature until the year of 2012 categorically refused to handle the topic of it. Still surrogacy arrangements are not legalized in Sweden. An interaction between three different sections in the Swedish law makes it so, that the method in practice cannot be performed in Sweden, even if not expressly prohibited.

The topic, however, is highly relevant as the government in May 2015 - just as this essay is being written - submitted a referral to the council of Legislation, in which single women are proposed to gain the right to ART in Sweden. The referral is based on an interim report from the government inquiry regarding the options and possibilities to expand the treatment of infertility. The main report, in which the issues regarding the possibility to legalize surrogacy arrangements are included, is to be submitted no later than December 2015.

The thesis briefly describes the methods of ART currently available to those suffering from infertility or who otherwise are having difficulties to conceive. As more methods of ART presently are being developed, a few of them will also be presented in the essay. The main aim of the paper, however, is to examine the arguments and basic principles of law that the legislators used when regulating the topic and matters at hand, as well as examining the intense and sometimes heated debate regarding the subject. The key concerns are highlighted and examined from several angles. The last chapter of the thesis provides for an in-depth analysis and summary of the main arguments. It also explains and states my own position on the matter.},
  author       = {Lidholm, Anja},
  keyword      = {barnets bästa,människovärdesprincipen,lag (2006:351) om genetisk integritet,assisterad befruktning,surrogatmoderskap,surrogatmödraskap,Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Konstgjorda barn och oäkta föräldrar? Den assisterade befruktningens och surrogatmödraskapets rättsetiska dilemman.},
  year         = {2015},
}