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Is villagisation an acceptable solution? - An analysis of villagisation programmes in Ethiopia in relation to the fulfilment of state obligations under the ICESCR and the concept of self-determination of indigenous people

Grunditz, Maria LU (2015) JURM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract
The concept of ‘villagisation’ refers to the resettlement of people from scattered areas into villages, in order to ensure efficient control and to provide basic social services and infrastructure. This kind of governmental practice has been implemented in various regions in Africa throughout the years. The main objective of villagisation is to provide, or improve, access to basic economic and social services.

The international human rights organisation, Human Rights Watch, has presented a line of reports concerning forced displacement of people, particularly highlighting the recent villagisation programme in Ethiopia. Because of villagisation in Ethiopia, large groups of indigenous people have been forced to move from their land and... (More)
The concept of ‘villagisation’ refers to the resettlement of people from scattered areas into villages, in order to ensure efficient control and to provide basic social services and infrastructure. This kind of governmental practice has been implemented in various regions in Africa throughout the years. The main objective of villagisation is to provide, or improve, access to basic economic and social services.

The international human rights organisation, Human Rights Watch, has presented a line of reports concerning forced displacement of people, particularly highlighting the recent villagisation programme in Ethiopia. Because of villagisation in Ethiopia, large groups of indigenous people have been forced to move from their land and abandon their livelihood. Villagisation is a thus controversial concept, and evidence shows that states seriously fail to deliver in accordance with the objectives of the programmes. However, despite the failures states continue to implement these programmes.

According to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) states shall use appropriate means to progressively realise the rights set forth in the Covenant. States must provide at least a minimum standard of the most basic rights. Villagisation could possibly be considered as an appropriate measure for developing states in order to fulfil the obligations under the ICESCR. However as states often fail to deliver in accordance with the aims of the programmes; it is questionable to whether villagisation really could be an acceptable solution in reality. One of the purposes of this thesis is to analyse whether villagisation, in view of the main official objectives of the programmes, could be considered as an appropriate measure for a developing country, such as to Ethiopia, to fulfil the state obligations under the ICESCR.

According to international human rights, states have an obligation to protect the identity of indigenous people. The concept of indigenous people is however very controversial in Africa and in Ethiopia there is no official recognition of the concept. The identity of indigenous people is often associated with a specific territory as well as cultural practices and traditions. Because of villagisation, many indigenous peoples are forced to leave their homes and territories, with the risk of losing their identity. The right of self-determination is thus a very strong claim for indigenous people. The second purpose of this thesis is thus to analyse the possibility of indigenous people in Ethiopia to claim the right of self-determination in order to refuse to take part in villagisation programmes. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
”Villagisation" är ett koncept som innebär förflyttning eller omlokalisering av personer i utspridda bosättningsområden in till byar. Detta sker ofta i syfte att säkerställa en effektiv kontroll och att för att kunna tillhandahålla grundläggande samhällstjänster och infrastruktur. Denna typ av statliga program har genomförts i olika regioner i Afrika genom åren. Huvudsyftet med omförflyttningarna är just att tillhandahålla eller förbättra tillgången till grundläggande samhällstjänster.

Den internationella människorättsorganisationen Human Rights Watch, har presenterat en rad rapporter som behandlar tvångsförflyttning av människor. Organisationen har särskilt belyst de senaste omlokaliseringsprojekten i Etiopien. På grund av dessa... (More)
”Villagisation" är ett koncept som innebär förflyttning eller omlokalisering av personer i utspridda bosättningsområden in till byar. Detta sker ofta i syfte att säkerställa en effektiv kontroll och att för att kunna tillhandahålla grundläggande samhällstjänster och infrastruktur. Denna typ av statliga program har genomförts i olika regioner i Afrika genom åren. Huvudsyftet med omförflyttningarna är just att tillhandahålla eller förbättra tillgången till grundläggande samhällstjänster.

Den internationella människorättsorganisationen Human Rights Watch, har presenterat en rad rapporter som behandlar tvångsförflyttning av människor. Organisationen har särskilt belyst de senaste omlokaliseringsprojekten i Etiopien. På grund av dessa projekt har stora grupper av urfolk tvingats flytta från sin mark och överge sitt levebröd. Användandet av omlokaliseringsprogram, eller förflyttningsprogram, är kontroversiellt och allvarliga brister har även kunnat påvisas vad gäller ländernas uppfyllande av målen. Trots dessa brister är det många länder som fortsätter med aktiviteterna.

Enligt den Internationella konventionen om de ekonomiska, sociala och kulturella rättigheterna, ska stater vidta lämpliga åtgärder för att successivt realisera de rättigheter som anges i Konventionen. Staterna måste åtminstone tillhandahålla en miniminivå av de mest grundläggande rättigheterna. Omlokaliseringsprojekt, kan mycket väl betraktas som lämpliga åtgärder för utvecklingsländer i syfte att uppfylla de skyldigheter som följer av Konventionen, men med tanke på att staterna ofta misslyckas med att leverera i enlighet med målen för programmen, kan det ifrågasättas huruvida detta är en godtagbar lösning i praktiken. Ett av syftena med denna uppsats är att analysera huruvida omlokaliseringsprogram, med sikte på de viktigaste officiella målen, skulle kunna betraktas som en lämplig åtgärd i ett utvecklingsland som t.ex. Etiopien, för att uppfylla statens skyldigheter i enlighet med Konventionen.

I enlighet med internationella mänskliga rättigheter, har stater en skyldighet att skydda identiteten hos ursprungsbefolkningar. Frågan om urfolk är mycket kontroversiell i Afrika och i Etiopien finns det inget officiellt erkännande gällande dessa folks existens. Identiteten hos urfolken är ofta sammankopplad med ett visst landområde och kulturella sedvänjor och traditioner. På grund av omlokaliseringsprojekten, tvingas dock många grupper av ursprungsbefolkning att lämna sina hem och landområden, vilket kan medföra risk för att identiteten går förlorad. Kravet på självbestämmande är således mycket starkt hos urfolken. Det andra syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera möjligheten för urfolk i Etiopien att åberopa rätten till självbestämmande för att vägra att delta i de statliga omlokaliseringsprogrammen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Grunditz, Maria LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
public international law, villagisation, sef-determination, indigenous people, Ethiopia
language
English
id
7444632
date added to LUP
2015-06-30 17:40:15
date last changed
2015-06-30 17:40:15
@misc{7444632,
  abstract     = {The concept of ‘villagisation’ refers to the resettlement of people from scattered areas into villages, in order to ensure efficient control and to provide basic social services and infrastructure. This kind of governmental practice has been implemented in various regions in Africa throughout the years. The main objective of villagisation is to provide, or improve, access to basic economic and social services. 

The international human rights organisation, Human Rights Watch, has presented a line of reports concerning forced displacement of people, particularly highlighting the recent villagisation programme in Ethiopia. Because of villagisation in Ethiopia, large groups of indigenous people have been forced to move from their land and abandon their livelihood. Villagisation is a thus controversial concept, and evidence shows that states seriously fail to deliver in accordance with the objectives of the programmes. However, despite the failures states continue to implement these programmes.

According to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) states shall use appropriate means to progressively realise the rights set forth in the Covenant. States must provide at least a minimum standard of the most basic rights. Villagisation could possibly be considered as an appropriate measure for developing states in order to fulfil the obligations under the ICESCR. However as states often fail to deliver in accordance with the aims of the programmes; it is questionable to whether villagisation really could be an acceptable solution in reality. One of the purposes of this thesis is to analyse whether villagisation, in view of the main official objectives of the programmes, could be considered as an appropriate measure for a developing country, such as to Ethiopia, to fulfil the state obligations under the ICESCR.

According to international human rights, states have an obligation to protect the identity of indigenous people. The concept of indigenous people is however very controversial in Africa and in Ethiopia there is no official recognition of the concept. The identity of indigenous people is often associated with a specific territory as well as cultural practices and traditions. Because of villagisation, many indigenous peoples are forced to leave their homes and territories, with the risk of losing their identity. The right of self-determination is thus a very strong claim for indigenous people. The second purpose of this thesis is thus to analyse the possibility of indigenous people in Ethiopia to claim the right of self-determination in order to refuse to take part in villagisation programmes.},
  author       = {Grunditz, Maria},
  keyword      = {public international law,villagisation,sef-determination,indigenous people,Ethiopia},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Is villagisation an acceptable solution? - An analysis of villagisation programmes in Ethiopia in relation to the fulfilment of state obligations under the ICESCR and the concept of self-determination of indigenous people},
  year         = {2015},
}