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Alkoholism och uppsåt:en studie angående uppsåt hos alkoholiserade gärningspersoner

Sundberg, Amanda LU (2015) LAGM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
För att en person ska kunna dömas för ett brott krävs det att denna har handlat med uppsåt eller i vissa fall oaktsamhet. För att uppsåt ska föreligga ska handlingen ha varit medveten och det ska finnas ett kausalsamband mellan denna och dess följd. Uppsåtsbegreppet är indelat i tre grader: avsiktsuppsåt, insiktsuppsåt och likgiltighetsuppsåt och de är graderade i den ordning de räknades upp med den allvarligaste formen först.

Vid Brottsbalkens tillkomst togs det tidigare kravet på tillräknelighet bort. Detta krav innebär att en person måste vara vid sina sinnes fulla bruk för att kunna dömas för ett brott. Det har varit aktuellt att återinföra detta krav i svensk rätt, men det skulle inte innefatta självförvållat berusade personer.... (More)
För att en person ska kunna dömas för ett brott krävs det att denna har handlat med uppsåt eller i vissa fall oaktsamhet. För att uppsåt ska föreligga ska handlingen ha varit medveten och det ska finnas ett kausalsamband mellan denna och dess följd. Uppsåtsbegreppet är indelat i tre grader: avsiktsuppsåt, insiktsuppsåt och likgiltighetsuppsåt och de är graderade i den ordning de räknades upp med den allvarligaste formen först.

Vid Brottsbalkens tillkomst togs det tidigare kravet på tillräknelighet bort. Detta krav innebär att en person måste vara vid sina sinnes fulla bruk för att kunna dömas för ett brott. Det har varit aktuellt att återinföra detta krav i svensk rätt, men det skulle inte innefatta självförvållat berusade personer. Det kan dock diskuteras om inte alkoholiserade gärningspersoner borde anses vara icke tillräkneliga, givet att de inte kan kontrollera sin alkoholkonsumtion.

Även om en person har uppsåt till en brottslig gärning, finns det situationer då denna trots detta kan gå fri från ansvar. Ett exempel på detta är förekomsten av tillfällig sinnesförvirring hos gärningspersonen. Alkoholiserade gärningspersoner ingår inte i denna kategori, men med tanke på att sådana personer lider av ett sjukdomstillstånd som gör det mycket svårt för dem att inte konsumera alkohol, borde deras berusning eventuellt ses som icke självförvållad.

Lagrummet som reglerar självförvållad berusning vid brott är 1 kap 2 § BrB, vilken stadgar att ifall en person som är självförvållat berusad begår en brottslig handling, innebär inte berusningen att handlingen inte ses som ett brott. Denna paragraf har varit föremål för en väsentlig del kontrovers de senaste åren. I ett rättsfall från 1973 stadgades det att i en situation med en självförvållat berusad gärningsperson, ska uppsåtet hos denna presumeras. Praxis på denna punkt ändrades först 2011, då HD kom fram till att en uppsåtsbedömning i en sådan situation ska göras som i andra brottmål.

För att det överhuvudtaget skulle kunna bli aktuellt att det inom svensk rätt ska göras en annorlunda uppsåtsbedömning när det gäller berusade gärningsmän, finns det för domstolen ett behov av underlag som stödjer att personen verkligen har ett alkoholberoende. Idag används personutredningar i brottmål och rättsintyg som medel för domstolen att få information om den misstänkte. Dessa används för det mesta som ett hjälpmedel vid påföljdsbedömningen, men kan även enligt lagrummens ordalydelse användas med syftet att inhämta information som kan vara till nytta vid rättegången. Sådant skulle kunna vara en eventuell missbruksproblematik hos den misstänkte.

Det resonemang som förs kring självförvållat rus och alkoholism å enda sidan och å andra sidan uppsåtsfrågan och de straffrättsliga principerna går inte alltid hand i hand. En eventuell lösning på problemet skulle kunna vara att förstagångsförbrytare med ett alkoholmissbruk går fria från ansvar för att kunna åtgärda sina problem. (Less)
Abstract
Researchers who studied alcohol dependence in humans have come to the conclusion that alcoholism affects the brain's neurotransmitters, which means that the brain can begin to function differently about exposing the large amounts of alcohol over a long period of time. An addiction to alcohol is hard to recover from, with many severe withdrawal symptoms as a result. In the current legal situation, there is no special regulation regarding whether alcoholic offenders can be regarded as acting with intent , only the section of the law on perpetrators who are self-inflicted drunk exist.

For a person to be convicted of a crime requires that this has acted with intent or in some cases negligently. A prerequisite for faith to exist is that the... (More)
Researchers who studied alcohol dependence in humans have come to the conclusion that alcoholism affects the brain's neurotransmitters, which means that the brain can begin to function differently about exposing the large amounts of alcohol over a long period of time. An addiction to alcohol is hard to recover from, with many severe withdrawal symptoms as a result. In the current legal situation, there is no special regulation regarding whether alcoholic offenders can be regarded as acting with intent , only the section of the law on perpetrators who are self-inflicted drunk exist.

For a person to be convicted of a crime requires that this has acted with intent or in some cases negligently. A prerequisite for faith to exist is that the unlawful act is deliberate and there must be a causal link between this and its consequence. Intent concept is divided into three levels: the intention intent, understanding intent and indifference intent and they are graded in the order they were listed with the most severe form first.

When the Swedish penal law was created, the previous requirement for accountability was removed. This requirement means that a person must be in their right mind to be convicted of a crime. It has been a discussion whether this requirement shall be re-introduces in Swedish law, but it would not include offenders affected with self-inflicted intoxication. However, it can be discussed whether alcoholic perpetrators should be considered as not accountable, given that they cannot control their alcohol consumption.

Even if a person has intent to a criminal act, there are situations where they can nevertheless go free from responsibility. An example of this is the presence of temporary insanity of the offender. Alcoholic offenders are not included in this category, but given that such persons are suffering from a medical condition that makes it very difficult for them not to consume alcohol, then their intoxication may be seen as not self-inflicted.

The law which governing crimes concerning self-inflicted intoxication is 1 chapter 2 § Penal Code, which stipulates that if a person who is affected by a self-inflicted intoxication commits a criminal offense, it is considered a crime despite the intoxication. This paragraph has been subject for a substantial deal of controversy in recent years. In a court case from 1973, it was established that in a situation with a self-inflicted drunken perpetrator, the intent of this person would be presumed. This was changed in 2011, when the Supreme Court decided that an assessment regarding the intent should be done just as in other criminal cases.

For it could possibly be the case that in Swedish law should be a different faith judgment regarding offenders with alcohol dependency, there is a need for the court of evidence to support the person actually has an alcohol addiction. At this point, the court uses personal criminal investigations and forensic medical report to get information about the suspect. These are for the most part as an aid in assessing penalty, but can also according to the laws in this area be used for the purpose of obtaining information that can be useful at trial. Such could be if the suspected person has a problem with alcohol dependency.

The reasoning presented on self-inflicted intoxication and alcoholism on the one hand and on the other the criminal intent and the principles of criminal law does not always go hand in hand. A possible solution to the problem would be to let first-time offenders with alcohol abuse be free from responsibility so they can get the opportunity to overcome their problems. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Sundberg, Amanda LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Alcoholism and criminal intent
course
LAGM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, självförvållat rus, alkoholism, uppsåt
language
Swedish
id
7756626
date added to LUP
2015-09-18 14:59:28
date last changed
2017-01-27 14:29:31
@misc{7756626,
  abstract     = {Researchers who studied alcohol dependence in humans have come to the conclusion that alcoholism affects the brain's neurotransmitters, which means that the brain can begin to function differently about exposing the large amounts of alcohol over a long period of time. An addiction to alcohol is hard to recover from, with many severe withdrawal symptoms as a result. In the current legal situation, there is no special regulation regarding whether alcoholic offenders can be regarded as acting with intent , only the section of the law on perpetrators who are self-inflicted drunk exist.

For a person to be convicted of a crime requires that this has acted with intent or in some cases negligently. A prerequisite for faith to exist is that the unlawful act is deliberate and there must be a causal link between this and its consequence. Intent concept is divided into three levels: the intention intent, understanding intent and indifference intent and they are graded in the order they were listed with the most severe form first.

When the Swedish penal law was created, the previous requirement for accountability was removed. This requirement means that a person must be in their right mind to be convicted of a crime. It has been a discussion whether this requirement shall be re-introduces in Swedish law, but it would not include offenders affected with self-inflicted intoxication. However, it can be discussed whether alcoholic perpetrators should be considered as not accountable, given that they cannot control their alcohol consumption.

Even if a person has intent to a criminal act, there are situations where they can nevertheless go free from responsibility. An example of this is the presence of temporary insanity of the offender. Alcoholic offenders are not included in this category, but given that such persons are suffering from a medical condition that makes it very difficult for them not to consume alcohol, then their intoxication may be seen as not self-inflicted.

The law which governing crimes concerning self-inflicted intoxication is 1 chapter 2 § Penal Code, which stipulates that if a person who is affected by a self-inflicted intoxication commits a criminal offense, it is considered a crime despite the intoxication. This paragraph has been subject for a substantial deal of controversy in recent years. In a court case from 1973, it was established that in a situation with a self-inflicted drunken perpetrator, the intent of this person would be presumed. This was changed in 2011, when the Supreme Court decided that an assessment regarding the intent should be done just as in other criminal cases.

For it could possibly be the case that in Swedish law should be a different faith judgment regarding offenders with alcohol dependency, there is a need for the court of evidence to support the person actually has an alcohol addiction. At this point, the court uses personal criminal investigations and forensic medical report to get information about the suspect. These are for the most part as an aid in assessing penalty, but can also according to the laws in this area be used for the purpose of obtaining information that can be useful at trial. Such could be if the suspected person has a problem with alcohol dependency.

The reasoning presented on self-inflicted intoxication and alcoholism on the one hand and on the other the criminal intent and the principles of criminal law does not always go hand in hand. A possible solution to the problem would be to let first-time offenders with alcohol abuse be free from responsibility so they can get the opportunity to overcome their problems.},
  author       = {Sundberg, Amanda},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,självförvållat rus,alkoholism,uppsåt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Alkoholism och uppsåt:en studie angående uppsåt hos alkoholiserade gärningspersoner},
  year         = {2015},
}