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Spelarkontrakt i professionell fotboll - En jämförande studie mellan fotbollens och arbetsrättens regler

Eidevall, Jonas LU (2015) JURM01 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I dagens kunskapssamhälle så ökar arbetsgivarens behov av att binda arbetstagare med särskilda kompetenser då de är så kallade nyckelmedarbetare. I vissa fall kan hela bolagets värde utgöras av arbetstagarna. Därför ökar också användandet av konkurrensklausuler. Normalt sätt så tar den sikte på arbetstagarens förehavanden efter det att denne har lämnat sin anställning. Men för de allra flesta så har den också en stark preventiv effekt då den försvårar för arbetstagaren att söka ett nytt jobb. Men enligt praxis i svensk arbetsrätt så är en klausul inte rättsligt bindande som enbart syftar till att binda en arbetstagare med särskilda kompetenser och särskilda kunskaper.
Därför har jag valt att jämföra synsättet på konkurrensklausuler i... (More)
I dagens kunskapssamhälle så ökar arbetsgivarens behov av att binda arbetstagare med särskilda kompetenser då de är så kallade nyckelmedarbetare. I vissa fall kan hela bolagets värde utgöras av arbetstagarna. Därför ökar också användandet av konkurrensklausuler. Normalt sätt så tar den sikte på arbetstagarens förehavanden efter det att denne har lämnat sin anställning. Men för de allra flesta så har den också en stark preventiv effekt då den försvårar för arbetstagaren att söka ett nytt jobb. Men enligt praxis i svensk arbetsrätt så är en klausul inte rättsligt bindande som enbart syftar till att binda en arbetstagare med särskilda kompetenser och särskilda kunskaper.
Därför har jag valt att jämföra synsättet på konkurrensklausuler i svensk arbetsrätt med spelaravtalen i professionell fotboll. Fotbollens spelaravtal är till sin utformning, och de regelverk som de styrs av, konkurrensbegränsande för fotbollsspelaren som arbetstagare. En spelare som är bunden av ett spelaravtal får ej byta klubb, arbetsgivare, om inte den nya och förra klubben kommer överens om detta. Detta resulterar i att effekten av spelaravtalet blir en globalt omfattande konkurrensklausul.
Då denna konstruktion hade varit intressant även för andra branscher så undersöker jag möjligheten för andra att kopiera fotbollens system. Centrala komponenter för fotbollens system är dess egna regelverk och skiljedomstolar.
Uppsatsen innehåller en genomgång av gällande rätt för fotbollsspelare som ensidigt häver sitt spelaravtal utan giltiga skäl. Gällande rätt jämförs sedan med EU-rätten och den svenska arbetsrätten. Fram träder en bild av ett rättsområde där de rättsliga gränserna är oklara och otydliga. Idrotten tillåts ha undantag ifrån rättsliga regler på grund av idrottens särdrag. Men hur långt dessa undantag sträcker sig är svårt att säga. Oklarheten avskräcker även parterna, och i synnerhet fotbollsspelaren, ifrån att häva avtal då man ej vet vad de rättsliga konsekvenserna kommer att bli. Jag ger därför mitt eget förslag på hur en klausul hade kunnat utformas som harmoniserar med gällande rätt och sammanväger de olika parternas intressen.
Det oklara rättsläget gällande idrottens särart medför också att det är mycket svårt att bedöma möjligheterna för en annan bransch att kopiera fotbollens system. Men sannolikt är dem små. Det är väldigt svårt för en annan bransch att skapa den homogena avtalssituationen som fotbollen har och dessutom få det politiska stödet som idrottens särart innebär. (Less)
Abstract
The necessity is high for employers to keep employees with particular skills in today's knowledge-based society. In some cases, the entire value of the company is based on the skills of the employees. Therefore there is also an increase in the use of non-competition clauses. Normally, it effects the employee’s actions after the employment relationship is terminated. For most people, it has also a strong preventive effect because it makes it difficult for the employee to find a new job. But, according to the jurisprudence of Swedish labor law, a non-competition clause is not legally binding if its intention merely is to bind a worker with specific skills.
Therefore, I have chosen to compare that approach to non-competition clauses, in... (More)
The necessity is high for employers to keep employees with particular skills in today's knowledge-based society. In some cases, the entire value of the company is based on the skills of the employees. Therefore there is also an increase in the use of non-competition clauses. Normally, it effects the employee’s actions after the employment relationship is terminated. For most people, it has also a strong preventive effect because it makes it difficult for the employee to find a new job. But, according to the jurisprudence of Swedish labor law, a non-competition clause is not legally binding if its intention merely is to bind a worker with specific skills.
Therefore, I have chosen to compare that approach to non-competition clauses, in Swedish labor, with player contracts in professional football. Football players’ contracts are in their effect, and the regulations that they are controlled by, limiting the players’ freedom on the labor market. A player who is bound by a contract may not change clubs unless the new and former club agree on terms. This terms in the player’s contract is having the same effect as a non-competition clause with a global reach.
This would be interesting for other branches as well. Therefore I examine the possibility for them to copy the legal system in football. Central components of this system is its own regulations and arbitration tribunals.
The thesis contains a study of what the applicable law is for football players who unilaterally terminates their contracts without just cause. The applicable law is then compared with the EU law and the Swedish labor law. A picture emerges of a legal area where the legal boundaries are vague and unclear. Sport is allowed to have exemptions from the law because of, what we in Sweden call, the specificity of the sport. But how far these exceptions are stretching is difficult to say. This uncertain situation deters the parties, and in particular the football player, from unilaterally terminate contracts when one does not know what the legal effects will be. I therefore give my own suggestions on how a clause could be written to harmonize with the applicable law and the same time take, the parties, various interests in account.
The unclear legal situation regarding the specificity of sport also means that it is very difficult to assess the possibility for another industry to copy football’s system. But probably it is low. It is very difficult for another industry to create the homogeneous contract situation of football and additionally to get the political support that the specificity of sport requires. (Less)
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author
Eidevall, Jonas LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Players' contracts in professional football - a comparative study of the rules in football and labor law
course
JURM01 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Labour Law, Arbetsrätt
language
Swedish
id
7765457
date added to LUP
2015-09-02 11:13:01
date last changed
2015-09-02 11:28:31
@misc{7765457,
  abstract     = {The necessity is high for employers to keep employees with particular skills in today's knowledge-based society. In some cases, the entire value of the company is based on the skills of the employees. Therefore there is also an increase in the use of non-competition clauses. Normally, it effects the employee’s actions after the employment relationship is terminated. For most people, it has also a strong preventive effect because it makes it difficult for the employee to find a new job. But, according to the jurisprudence of Swedish labor law, a non-competition clause is not legally binding if its intention merely is to bind a worker with specific skills.
Therefore, I have chosen to compare that approach to non-competition clauses, in Swedish labor, with player contracts in professional football. Football players’ contracts are in their effect, and the regulations that they are controlled by, limiting the players’ freedom on the labor market. A player who is bound by a contract may not change clubs unless the new and former club agree on terms. This terms in the player’s contract is having the same effect as a non-competition clause with a global reach.
This would be interesting for other branches as well. Therefore I examine the possibility for them to copy the legal system in football. Central components of this system is its own regulations and arbitration tribunals.
The thesis contains a study of what the applicable law is for football players who unilaterally terminates their contracts without just cause. The applicable law is then compared with the EU law and the Swedish labor law. A picture emerges of a legal area where the legal boundaries are vague and unclear. Sport is allowed to have exemptions from the law because of, what we in Sweden call, the specificity of the sport. But how far these exceptions are stretching is difficult to say. This uncertain situation deters the parties, and in particular the football player, from unilaterally terminate contracts when one does not know what the legal effects will be. I therefore give my own suggestions on how a clause could be written to harmonize with the applicable law and the same time take, the parties, various interests in account.
The unclear legal situation regarding the specificity of sport also means that it is very difficult to assess the possibility for another industry to copy football’s system. But probably it is low. It is very difficult for another industry to create the homogeneous contract situation of football and additionally to get the political support that the specificity of sport requires.},
  author       = {Eidevall, Jonas},
  keyword      = {Labour Law,Arbetsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Spelarkontrakt i professionell fotboll - En jämförande studie mellan fotbollens och arbetsrättens regler},
  year         = {2015},
}