Advanced

Att återvinna eller återbära - en utredning av konkursboets möjligheter att återta egendom som frånhänts bolaget

Vult Von Steyern, Hanna LU (2016) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract
A bankruptcy may evoke less appropriate acts from both the debtor and the creditors. A debtor may try to favour himself, or a relative, by transferring assets out of the company before the company’s bankruptcy. A creditor on the other hand may, due to his concern to suffer great financial losses, put pressure on the debtor about payment of his debts, which puts the creditor in a better position than the other creditors in the bankruptcy. To prevent disloyal actions is a consistent theme in the insolvency law. A significant part of the bankruptcy act, (konkurslagen), are therefore the rules that prevent the parts from committing unwanted acts in a bankruptcy, alternatively that corrects the damage that has been caused by an already taken... (More)
A bankruptcy may evoke less appropriate acts from both the debtor and the creditors. A debtor may try to favour himself, or a relative, by transferring assets out of the company before the company’s bankruptcy. A creditor on the other hand may, due to his concern to suffer great financial losses, put pressure on the debtor about payment of his debts, which puts the creditor in a better position than the other creditors in the bankruptcy. To prevent disloyal actions is a consistent theme in the insolvency law. A significant part of the bankruptcy act, (konkurslagen), are therefore the rules that prevent the parts from committing unwanted acts in a bankruptcy, alternatively that corrects the damage that has been caused by an already taken act. In this context it’s usually spoken about creditor protecting rules, which mainly can be found in 17:3 in the companies act (aktiebolagslagen), and the 4th chapter of the bankruptcy act. These rules provide for equal treatment of the creditors and intend to prevent improper conducts taken by the debtor. Indirectly, even the debtor obtains protection by the creditor protecting rules since they make it easier for the debtor to resist the pressure from a single creditor about payment.

This essay gives an account of the bankruptcy estate’s possibilities to, through the application of above-mentioned legislations, recover fortune that has left the company by improper or illegal acts. Initially the essay will account for the bankruptcy (insolvency) law, historically and contemporary. Thereafter the essay will focus on the parts of the legislation that concerns and provides for the possibilities to refund acts and transactions made by a company in connection with an upcoming bankruptcy, thereby referring to the 4th chapter of the bankruptcy act and the 17th chapter of the companies act. Of relevance in this context is also the term insolvency. The determination of the time of insolvency affects which transactions that can be subject to refunding. An understanding of the term insolvency is of fundamental importance to be able to assess the prospects for success with an action of refund. For this reason, this essay account for the interpretation and meaning of the term insolvency.

The essay ends in an analysis of the material and the facts that have been the basis for the essay. The material and facts are commented and interpreted before it all comes to a conclusion. The conclusions that have been made concerning the two alternative methods are thereafter interlaced with the conclusions and comments about the meaning of and application of the insolvency term. The essay shows that the relevant regulations in both legal acts to some extent represent two sides of the same coin. The regulations differ at many essential points, but at the same time they operate for the same purpose and leads to, more or less, the same legal effects. The differences between the alternatives do although demand an assessment of the chances of success with each alternative. The circumstances of each case, e.g. time of insolvency, determine whether of the legal refund systems that should be invoked. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
En konkurs kan frammana mindre lämpliga ageranden hos både borgenär och gäldenär. En gäldenär kan för egen, eller närståendes, vinning tänkas söka undandra tillgångar från bolaget innan dess konkurs. En borgenär å sin sida kan i oron för att lida stora förluster vidta betalningspåtryckningar mot gäldenären. Detta leder till att denne borgenär gynnas i förhållande till resterande borgenärer. Att motverka illojala ageranden utgör ett genomgående tema i konkursrätten. En viktig del av konkursrätten utgörs därför av regleringar som förhindrar oönskade ageranden i en konkurs, alternativt ställer till rätta den skada som uppstått genom redan företagen rättshandling. I sammanhanget brukar det talas om borgenärsskyddsregler vilka främst återfinns... (More)
En konkurs kan frammana mindre lämpliga ageranden hos både borgenär och gäldenär. En gäldenär kan för egen, eller närståendes, vinning tänkas söka undandra tillgångar från bolaget innan dess konkurs. En borgenär å sin sida kan i oron för att lida stora förluster vidta betalningspåtryckningar mot gäldenären. Detta leder till att denne borgenär gynnas i förhållande till resterande borgenärer. Att motverka illojala ageranden utgör ett genomgående tema i konkursrätten. En viktig del av konkursrätten utgörs därför av regleringar som förhindrar oönskade ageranden i en konkurs, alternativt ställer till rätta den skada som uppstått genom redan företagen rättshandling. I sammanhanget brukar det talas om borgenärsskyddsregler vilka främst återfinns i 17 kap. ABL och 4 kap. KL. Reglerna skyddar borgenärerna genom att föreskriva likabehandling mellan borgenärerna samt genom att förhindra otillbörligt agerande från gäldenärens sida. Indirekt får bestämmelserna också en gäldenärsskyddande effekt genom att säkra och stärka denne från betalningspåtryckningar från en enskild borgenär.

Konkursreglerna utgår från att när flera borgenärer inte kan få full täckning för sina fordringar förlusten i princip ska fördelas proportionellt i förhållande till storleken av varje borgenärs fordran. Denna uppsats redogör för ett konkursbos möjligheter att genom ABL respektive KL ta tillbaka egendom som frånhänts bolaget genom otillbörliga eller olagliga metoder. Inledningsvis kommer uppsatsen kortfattat redogöra för konkursrätten både historiskt och idag. Fokus kommer därefter övergå till de delar av konkursrätten som behandlar möjligheten till återbäring, (återvinning), av rättshandlingar och transaktioner som företagits från ett bolag – nämligen KL och dess 4 kap. samt ABL och dess 17 kap. Av betydelse i sammanhanget är även begreppet obestånd. Fastställandet av obestånd inverkar på vilka transaktioner som kan bli föremål för återbäring. Förståelse för obeståndsbegreppet är avgörande för att kunna bedöma utsikterna till framgång med en talan om återbäring. Uppsatsen redogör av denna anledning för tolkningen och innebörden av begreppet obestånd.

Uppsatsen avslutas med en sammanfattande analys av rättsläget. I analysen kommenteras och tolkas det material och den fakta som lagts till grund för uppsatsen för att sedan summeras i en slutsats. Sammanfattningen av regelsystemen sammanflätas omsider med slutsatser och kommentarer om innebörden och tillämpningen av obeståndsbegreppet. Uppsatsen påvisar att de aktuella bestämmelserna i ABL respektive KL till viss del utgör två sidor av samma mynt. Regleringarna skiljer sig åt på många väsentliga punkter samtidigt som de verkar för samma syfte och föranleder i stort sätt samma rättsverkningar. Skiljaktigheterna mellan alternativen kräver dock en bedömning av chanserna för framgång med respektive alternativ. Omständigheterna i varje enskilt fall, t.ex. obeståndstidpunkt, avgör om ABL eller KL bör åberopas i första hand. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Vult Von Steyern, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The bankruptcy estate's possibilities to recover fortune that has left the company by improper or illegal acts
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
förmögenhetsrätt, associationsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8507125
date added to LUP
2016-01-21 14:26:41
date last changed
2016-02-10 11:36:24
@misc{8507125,
  abstract     = {A bankruptcy may evoke less appropriate acts from both the debtor and the creditors. A debtor may try to favour himself, or a relative, by transferring assets out of the company before the company’s bankruptcy. A creditor on the other hand may, due to his concern to suffer great financial losses, put pressure on the debtor about payment of his debts, which puts the creditor in a better position than the other creditors in the bankruptcy. To prevent disloyal actions is a consistent theme in the insolvency law. A significant part of the bankruptcy act, (konkurslagen), are therefore the rules that prevent the parts from committing unwanted acts in a bankruptcy, alternatively that corrects the damage that has been caused by an already taken act. In this context it’s usually spoken about creditor protecting rules, which mainly can be found in 17:3 in the companies act (aktiebolagslagen), and the 4th chapter of the bankruptcy act. These rules provide for equal treatment of the creditors and intend to prevent improper conducts taken by the debtor. Indirectly, even the debtor obtains protection by the creditor protecting rules since they make it easier for the debtor to resist the pressure from a single creditor about payment. 

This essay gives an account of the bankruptcy estate’s possibilities to, through the application of above-mentioned legislations, recover fortune that has left the company by improper or illegal acts. Initially the essay will account for the bankruptcy (insolvency) law, historically and contemporary. Thereafter the essay will focus on the parts of the legislation that concerns and provides for the possibilities to refund acts and transactions made by a company in connection with an upcoming bankruptcy, thereby referring to the 4th chapter of the bankruptcy act and the 17th chapter of the companies act. Of relevance in this context is also the term insolvency. The determination of the time of insolvency affects which transactions that can be subject to refunding. An understanding of the term insolvency is of fundamental importance to be able to assess the prospects for success with an action of refund. For this reason, this essay account for the interpretation and meaning of the term insolvency.

The essay ends in an analysis of the material and the facts that have been the basis for the essay. The material and facts are commented and interpreted before it all comes to a conclusion. The conclusions that have been made concerning the two alternative methods are thereafter interlaced with the conclusions and comments about the meaning of and application of the insolvency term. The essay shows that the relevant regulations in both legal acts to some extent represent two sides of the same coin. The regulations differ at many essential points, but at the same time they operate for the same purpose and leads to, more or less, the same legal effects. The differences between the alternatives do although demand an assessment of the chances of success with each alternative. The circumstances of each case, e.g. time of insolvency, determine whether of the legal refund systems that should be invoked.},
  author       = {Vult Von Steyern, Hanna},
  keyword      = {förmögenhetsrätt,associationsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Att återvinna eller återbära - en utredning av konkursboets möjligheter att återta egendom som frånhänts bolaget},
  year         = {2016},
}