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Utländska barns rätt till utbildning i Sverige

Stärner, Johanna LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
De barn och ungdomar som nyligen kommit till Sverige är ingen enhetlig grupp utan består av barn med olika ursprung, som också har olika skolbakgrund. Under senare tid har flyktingströmmen till Sverige ökat markant och vi har under 2015 tagit emot ca 50 000 barn i åldern 7-17 år. Utöver dessa barn har även ett stort antal EU-migranter kommit till Sverige i enlighet med den fria rörligheten. Vad som gäller för utländska barns skolgång i Sverige är en aktuell och intressant frågeställning som väckts inte minst då en del barn med utländsk bakgrund kanske inte får möjlighet till utbildning i Sverige. Huruvida de har rätt att få tillgång till utbildning är något som många troligtvis inte reflekterat över förrän situationen med både EU-migranter... (More)
De barn och ungdomar som nyligen kommit till Sverige är ingen enhetlig grupp utan består av barn med olika ursprung, som också har olika skolbakgrund. Under senare tid har flyktingströmmen till Sverige ökat markant och vi har under 2015 tagit emot ca 50 000 barn i åldern 7-17 år. Utöver dessa barn har även ett stort antal EU-migranter kommit till Sverige i enlighet med den fria rörligheten. Vad som gäller för utländska barns skolgång i Sverige är en aktuell och intressant frågeställning som väckts inte minst då en del barn med utländsk bakgrund kanske inte får möjlighet till utbildning i Sverige. Huruvida de har rätt att få tillgång till utbildning är något som många troligtvis inte reflekterat över förrän situationen med både EU-migranter och nyanlända asylsökande blev den vi har idag.

Syftet med studien är således att undersöka vilka regelverk som styr rätten till utländska barns utbildning i Sverige och om rätten eventuellt skiljer sig beroende på anledningen till barnets vistelse i landet. Vidare är det särskilt intressant att undersöka rätten till utbildning i förhållande till barnkonventionen och huruvida en inkorporering hade medfört en ändring av rätten till utbildning i Sverige. Detta för att se om den svenska lagstiftningen i dagsläget är tillräcklig för att säkerställa att rättigheterna i konventionen uppfylls.

Rätt till utbildning ses som en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Det kan konstateras att den svenska rätten till utbildning påverkas av olika internationella konventioner och EU-rätten. I EU-rätten skyddas rätten till utbildning genom grundfördragen och rättighetsstadgan. Utöver detta säkerställs rätten till utbildning enligt EU-rätten genom rörlighetsdirektivet 2004/38/EG och arbetslivsförordningen 492/2011/EU. I grundfördragen och rättighetsstadgan har det slagits fast att skyddsnivån i Europakonventionen, EKMR, alltid ska beaktas vid tillämpning av unionsrätten, konventionen har också inkorporerats i Sverige. Genom den bindande EU-rätten och inkorporering i svensk lag har EKMR en särskilt stark ställning i Sverige. Europakonventionen säkerställer rätten till utbildning i ett av sina tilläggsprotokoll. Genom en dom från Europadomstolen har rätten till utbildning fått direkt skydd under konventionen.

Det svenska regelverket för rätten till utbildning finns i Skollagen (2010:800) 7 kapitel och 29 kapitel. Här säkerställs rätten till utbildning för de barn som ska anses bosatta i landet. Det svenska regelverket är i huvudsak tydligt och det är endast i enstaka fall som det kan uppstå tveksamheter. Den situation som tycks skapa störst osäkerhet är frågan om barn till icke- arbetande EU-migranters rätt till utbildning. Då det endast finns ett vägledande beslut i frågan finns behov av ytterligare praxis på området för att tydliggöra rättsläget i de fall regelverket skapar osäkerhet. Trots att regelverket till stor del är tydligt verkar det dock föreligga ett problem i att Sverige initialt inte har tillräckliga resurser för att säkerställa regelverkets efterlevnad.

Barnkonventionen har en särskild betydelse för den svenska rätten trots att den ännu inte är inkorporerad i svensk lag. Det är tydligt att beslutsfattande myndigheter och domstolar redan idag beaktar konventionen vid fattandet av beslut rörande barn. Trots detta finns det många som menar att en inkorporering är nödvändig för att konventionen ska få tillräckligt genomslag i praktiken. En inkorporering av barnkonventionen i svensk rätt skulle enligt författarens mening inte medföra några negativa effekter för det enskilda barnets rätt till utbildning. Däremot är det mer oklart om en inkorporering skulle innebära en märkbar effekt i positiv riktning så att samtliga barn omfattas av rätten till utbildning. Detta då den svenska lagstiftningen i dagsläget är generös i frågan. (Less)
Abstract
The children and adolescents who recently have come to Sweden are not a homogenous group. The group consists of children with different origins and they also have different educational background. Recently the level of refugees coming to Sweden has risen significantly, and during 2015 Sweden have received approximately 50 000 refugee children in the ages 7- 17. Besides the refugee children there are also a large amount of children to EU- migrants who have come to Sweden in accordance with the European union law, and the freedom of movement. What applies to the foreign children's schooling in Sweden is a current and interesting issue raised, not least because some children with a foreign background may not get the opportunity to study in... (More)
The children and adolescents who recently have come to Sweden are not a homogenous group. The group consists of children with different origins and they also have different educational background. Recently the level of refugees coming to Sweden has risen significantly, and during 2015 Sweden have received approximately 50 000 refugee children in the ages 7- 17. Besides the refugee children there are also a large amount of children to EU- migrants who have come to Sweden in accordance with the European union law, and the freedom of movement. What applies to the foreign children's schooling in Sweden is a current and interesting issue raised, not least because some children with a foreign background may not get the opportunity to study in Sweden. Whether these children have the right to access education in Sweden or not, is a question that many probably have not reflected over before the current situation, with both EU migrants and newly arrived asylum seekers, appeared.

The purpose of the study is to examine which regulation is applicable when it comes to foreign children’s right to education, and if the regulation may differ depending on the reason for the child’s stay in Sweden. Furthermore, it is particularly interesting to investigate the right to education in relation to the UN: s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and whether incorporation would result in a change of the right to education in Sweden. The purpose is therefore to examine whether the Swedish legislation is sufficient to ensure the rights in the convention of the child.
The right to education is seen as a fundamental human right, which is protected by many international conventions. It is clear that the Swedish legislation is influenced by these international agreements, as well as of EU law. EU- law protects the right to education by the EU-law’s primary Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. In addition to this, the right to education is ensured by Directive 2004/38/EC on Free Movement of persons and the Regulation no 492/2011 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within the Union. The primary treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights also states that the protection of human right’s in the European Convention on Human Rights must be considered at all times. The convention is also incorporated in Sweden. Because of the binding union law and incorporation into Swedish law, the convention has a particularly strong position in Sweden. The Convention ensures the right to education in one of its Additional Protocol. By judgement of the European Court of Justice, has the right to education received direct protection under the Convention of Human Rights.
The Swedish regulatory framework for the right to education is found in Skollagen (2010:800) 7th and 29th chapters. The regulation states that children in Sweden have the right to education if they are resident in the country. The Swedish legislation is mostly well- defined and there are only a few cases, which seems to be unclear. The situation that seems to create most uncertainty is the issue of children of non-working EU-migrants’ right to education. There is only one ruling by a Swedish court, which considers the right to education in Sweden and guidance from administrative- courts is therefore necessary to clarify the legislation in these situations. Despite the fact the regulatory framework is largely clear it seems to exist a problem, that Sweden initially do not have resources to ensure the regulatory compliance.
CRC has a special significance for Swedish law, even though the convention is not yet incorporated. It is clear that decision-making authorities and courts already consider the Convention when making a decision regarding children. Despite this there are many who believe that the incorporation is necessary for the Convention to have sufficient in practice. The incorporation into Swedish law would, in the author’s opinion, probably not result in any negative effects for the individual child’s right to education. However, it is less clear if an incorporation would result in a noticeable effect in a positive direction. This is because the Swedish legislation in the current situation is very generous when it comes to offering education. (Less)
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author
Stärner, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Foreign Children's Right to Education in Sweden
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Förvaltningsrätt, Administrative Law, utbildning, Education
language
Swedish
id
8512164
date added to LUP
2016-01-29 13:31:41
date last changed
2016-02-08 10:34:45
@misc{8512164,
  abstract     = {The children and adolescents who recently have come to Sweden are not a homogenous group. The group consists of children with different origins and they also have different educational background. Recently the level of refugees coming to Sweden has risen significantly, and during 2015 Sweden have received approximately 50 000 refugee children in the ages 7- 17. Besides the refugee children there are also a large amount of children to EU- migrants who have come to Sweden in accordance with the European union law, and the freedom of movement. What applies to the foreign children's schooling in Sweden is a current and interesting issue raised, not least because some children with a foreign background may not get the opportunity to study in Sweden. Whether these children have the right to access education in Sweden or not, is a question that many probably have not reflected over before the current situation, with both EU migrants and newly arrived asylum seekers, appeared. 

The purpose of the study is to examine which regulation is applicable when it comes to foreign children’s right to education, and if the regulation may differ depending on the reason for the child’s stay in Sweden. Furthermore, it is particularly interesting to investigate the right to education in relation to the UN: s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and whether incorporation would result in a change of the right to education in Sweden. The purpose is therefore to examine whether the Swedish legislation is sufficient to ensure the rights in the convention of the child. 
The right to education is seen as a fundamental human right, which is protected by many international conventions. It is clear that the Swedish legislation is influenced by these international agreements, as well as of EU law. EU- law protects the right to education by the EU-law’s primary Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. In addition to this, the right to education is ensured by Directive 2004/38/EC on Free Movement of persons and the Regulation no 492/2011 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within the Union. The primary treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights also states that the protection of human right’s in the European Convention on Human Rights must be considered at all times. The convention is also incorporated in Sweden. Because of the binding union law and incorporation into Swedish law, the convention has a particularly strong position in Sweden. The Convention ensures the right to education in one of its Additional Protocol. By judgement of the European Court of Justice, has the right to education received direct protection under the Convention of Human Rights. 
The Swedish regulatory framework for the right to education is found in Skollagen (2010:800) 7th and 29th chapters. The regulation states that children in Sweden have the right to education if they are resident in the country. The Swedish legislation is mostly well- defined and there are only a few cases, which seems to be unclear. The situation that seems to create most uncertainty is the issue of children of non-working EU-migrants’ right to education. There is only one ruling by a Swedish court, which considers the right to education in Sweden and guidance from administrative- courts is therefore necessary to clarify the legislation in these situations. Despite the fact the regulatory framework is largely clear it seems to exist a problem, that Sweden initially do not have resources to ensure the regulatory compliance. 
CRC has a special significance for Swedish law, even though the convention is not yet incorporated. It is clear that decision-making authorities and courts already consider the Convention when making a decision regarding children. Despite this there are many who believe that the incorporation is necessary for the Convention to have sufficient in practice. The incorporation into Swedish law would, in the author’s opinion, probably not result in any negative effects for the individual child’s right to education. However, it is less clear if an incorporation would result in a noticeable effect in a positive direction. This is because the Swedish legislation in the current situation is very generous when it comes to offering education.},
  author       = {Stärner, Johanna},
  keyword      = {Förvaltningsrätt,Administrative Law,utbildning,Education},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Utländska barns rätt till utbildning i Sverige},
  year         = {2015},
}