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Assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen - Kan ett samtycke villkoras?

Herrloff, Ida LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen är en behandlingsmetod som samhället kan erbjuda ofrivilligt barnlösa par. Behandlingen sker antingen genom provrörsbefruktning (IVF) eller genom spermieinjektion (ICSI). Frågor kring fastställande och hävande av faderskap vid assisterad befruktning regleras av föräldrabalken. Enligt huvudregeln i 1 kap. 8 § FB ska en kvinnas make eller sambo som har samtyckt till befruktningen och om det med hänsyn till samtliga omständigheter är sannolikt att barnet har avlats genom densamma, fastställas som barnets far. Är paret gifta kommer även mannen att omfattas av faderskapspresumtionen i 1 kap. 1 § FB och förutsättas vara far till alla barn som föds inom äktenskapet. Ett faderskap kan hävas om samtycke till... (More)
Assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen är en behandlingsmetod som samhället kan erbjuda ofrivilligt barnlösa par. Behandlingen sker antingen genom provrörsbefruktning (IVF) eller genom spermieinjektion (ICSI). Frågor kring fastställande och hävande av faderskap vid assisterad befruktning regleras av föräldrabalken. Enligt huvudregeln i 1 kap. 8 § FB ska en kvinnas make eller sambo som har samtyckt till befruktningen och om det med hänsyn till samtliga omständigheter är sannolikt att barnet har avlats genom densamma, fastställas som barnets far. Är paret gifta kommer även mannen att omfattas av faderskapspresumtionen i 1 kap. 1 § FB och förutsättas vara far till alla barn som föds inom äktenskapet. Ett faderskap kan hävas om samtycke till befruktningen inte förelegat eller om det inte är sannolikt att barnet avlats genom befruktningen.

Under hösten 2015 prövade Högsta domstolen frågan kring huruvida man kan villkora ett samtycke till en assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen och till vilka parter en återkallelse av ett samtycke bör riktas mot. I målet hade en gift man i förhållande till sin fru villkorat sitt samtycke till att endast omfatta behandlingar avseende ett embryo, varpå kvinnan genomgick två behandlingar med insättande av två embryon. Kvinnan nedkom med tvillingar efter den sista behandlingen. Mannen var av uppfattningen att han inte kunde fastställas som rättslig fader till något av de båda barnen, eftersom han endast samtyckt till behandlingar med insättande av ett embryo. Högsta domstolen fann honom dock vara fader till båda barnen.

Målet med uppsatsen är att beskriva gällande rätt kring assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen, möjligheterna att villkora ett samtycke till en assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen och till vilka parter en återkallelse med villkor måste riktas. Målet är vidare att diskutera vad som kan anses vara barnets bästa vid assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen. Den metod som har använts utgörs främst av en traditionell rättsdogmatisk metod, men även en studie av normativa grundmönster har gjorts. Materialet utgörs till största del av lagstiftning och dess förarbeten, men även familjerättslig doktrin.

Genom intervjuer har jag undersökt hur verksamma jurister ställer sig till möjligheten att villkora ett samtycke vid assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen, till vilka parter en återkallelse av samtycket måste riktas mot och hur dessa tolkar Högsta domstolens dom i ”tvillingpappa-målet”. Majoriteten av juristerna anser att det fortfarande saknas en tydlig praxis huruvida man kan villkora ett samtycke avseende antalet embryon. Det hade därför varit önskvärt om Högsta domstolen hade uttalat sig i frågan i ”tvillingpappa-målet”. (Less)
Abstract
Assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility, is a treatment that society can provide for couples, who suffer from involuntary childlessness. The treatment is performed either by in virto fertilization (IVF) or by sperm injection (ICSI). The Children and Parents Code regulates the establishment and annulation of paternity due to assisted reproductive treatment. According to the main rule in chapter 1 paragraph 8 of the Children and Parents Code, the husband or partner of a woman who has approved the procedure, shall be established as the father of the child. It has to be likely that the child has been conceived through the treatment, though. If the couple is married, the husband will also be bound by the paternity... (More)
Assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility, is a treatment that society can provide for couples, who suffer from involuntary childlessness. The treatment is performed either by in virto fertilization (IVF) or by sperm injection (ICSI). The Children and Parents Code regulates the establishment and annulation of paternity due to assisted reproductive treatment. According to the main rule in chapter 1 paragraph 8 of the Children and Parents Code, the husband or partner of a woman who has approved the procedure, shall be established as the father of the child. It has to be likely that the child has been conceived through the treatment, though. If the couple is married, the husband will also be bound by the paternity presumption in chapter 1 paragraph 1 of the Children and Parents Code, and will be the presumed father to all the children born within the marriage. The paternity can be annulled if an approval is missing or if it is unlikely that the child has been conceived through the treatment.

During the autumn of 2015 the Supreme Court ruled, whether or not it is possible to set up provisions for the approval of an assisted reproductive treatment, and to which parties a revocation has to be called upon. In the case, a married man had provisioned his approval, in relation to his wife, to treatments consisting of only one embryo. Upon which the woman underwent two treatments with the insertion of two embryos. After the second treatment, the woman got pregnant with twins. The man was of the opinion that he could not be established as the father to either of the children, due to the fact that he had only approved treatments with the insertion of one embryo. The Supreme Court found the man to be the father of both the children.

In this thesis I aim to describe how the law regulates assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility, the possibilities to provision an approval of the fertilization and to which parties a revocation of the approval has to be called upon. The goal is further to discuss what can be seen as the best interests of the child when it comes to assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility. The method used consists of a traditional legal method, but also a study of basic normative patterns. The material used is mainly legislation and legislative history, but the doctrine of family law has also been used to some extent.

Through interviews I have examined the attitudes amongst working lawyers towards the possibility to provision an approval of the fertilization, to which parties a revocation has to be called upon and how they interpret the verdict of the Supreme Court in the “case of the twin father”. The majority of the lawyers noticed that a clear established practice is missing when it comes to the possibility to provision an approval regarding the number of embryos. According to that, it would have been most welcome if the Supreme Court had spoken upon the matter in the “case of the twin father”. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Herrloff, Ida LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility - Can an approval be provisioned?
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Assisterad befruktning, Villkorat samtycke, Barnets bästa, Normativa grundmönster
language
Swedish
id
8513066
date added to LUP
2016-01-27 14:43:01
date last changed
2016-01-27 14:43:01
@misc{8513066,
  abstract     = {Assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility, is a treatment that society can provide for couples, who suffer from involuntary childlessness. The treatment is performed either by in virto fertilization (IVF) or by sperm injection (ICSI). The Children and Parents Code regulates the establishment and annulation of paternity due to assisted reproductive treatment. According to the main rule in chapter 1 paragraph 8 of the Children and Parents Code, the husband or partner of a woman who has approved the procedure, shall be established as the father of the child. It has to be likely that the child has been conceived through the treatment, though. If the couple is married, the husband will also be bound by the paternity presumption in chapter 1 paragraph 1 of the Children and Parents Code, and will be the presumed father to all the children born within the marriage. The paternity can be annulled if an approval is missing or if it is unlikely that the child has been conceived through the treatment. 

During the autumn of 2015 the Supreme Court ruled, whether or not it is possible to set up provisions for the approval of an assisted reproductive treatment, and to which parties a revocation has to be called upon. In the case, a married man had provisioned his approval, in relation to his wife, to treatments consisting of only one embryo. Upon which the woman underwent two treatments with the insertion of two embryos. After the second treatment, the woman got pregnant with twins. The man was of the opinion that he could not be established as the father to either of the children, due to the fact that he had only approved treatments with the insertion of one embryo. The Supreme Court found the man to be the father of both the children. 

In this thesis I aim to describe how the law regulates assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility, the possibilities to provision an approval of the fertilization and to which parties a revocation of the approval has to be called upon. The goal is further to discuss what can be seen as the best interests of the child when it comes to assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility. The method used consists of a traditional legal method, but also a study of basic normative patterns. The material used is mainly legislation and legislative history, but the doctrine of family law has also been used to some extent. 

Through interviews I have examined the attitudes amongst working lawyers towards the possibility to provision an approval of the fertilization, to which parties a revocation has to be called upon and how they interpret the verdict of the Supreme Court in the “case of the twin father”. The majority of the lawyers noticed that a clear established practice is missing when it comes to the possibility to provision an approval regarding the number of embryos. According to that, it would have been most welcome if the Supreme Court had spoken upon the matter in the “case of the twin father”.},
  author       = {Herrloff, Ida},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Assisterad befruktning,Villkorat samtycke,Barnets bästa,Normativa grundmönster},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Assisterad befruktning utanför kroppen - Kan ett samtycke villkoras?},
  year         = {2015},
}