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Rimlighetsavvägningen i praktiken - Analys av rättstillämpningen av rimlighetsavvägningsregeln i 2 kap. 7 § miljöbalken

Widell, Linn LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
De allmänna hänsynsreglerna som återfinns i 2 kap. MB infördes i syfte att miljöaspekten skulle generellt öka i samhället och att de ska användas som ett medel att uppfylla målet om hållbar utveckling. Hänsynsreglerna ska tillämpas i den mån det inte är orimligt enligt 2 kap. 7 § MB. Åtgärder och försiktighetsmått ska vara miljömässigt motiverade utan att vara ekonomiskt orimliga. Det är emellertid svårt att veta hur man ska göra denna avvägning, då lagtexten inte specificerar det uttryckligare. Vid införandet framfördes kritik i form av oro för att lagarna är otydliga och svårbedömda. Propositionen till införandet av miljöbalken angav att ansvaret ligger hos praxis att utveckla paragraferna.
Med grund i att det föreligger vara oklarheter... (More)
De allmänna hänsynsreglerna som återfinns i 2 kap. MB infördes i syfte att miljöaspekten skulle generellt öka i samhället och att de ska användas som ett medel att uppfylla målet om hållbar utveckling. Hänsynsreglerna ska tillämpas i den mån det inte är orimligt enligt 2 kap. 7 § MB. Åtgärder och försiktighetsmått ska vara miljömässigt motiverade utan att vara ekonomiskt orimliga. Det är emellertid svårt att veta hur man ska göra denna avvägning, då lagtexten inte specificerar det uttryckligare. Vid införandet framfördes kritik i form av oro för att lagarna är otydliga och svårbedömda. Propositionen till införandet av miljöbalken angav att ansvaret ligger hos praxis att utveckla paragraferna.
Med grund i att det föreligger vara oklarheter i hur man ska tillämpa denna paragraf kommer följande uppsats att undersöka hur den tillämpas i gällande rätt. Detta kommer genomföras genom att undersöka förarbeten och doktrin, samt analysera praxis som tillkommit de senaste åren. Uppsatsen ämnar efterforska om det går att utröna enhetlighet i bedömningarna och om det finns transparens och rättssäkerhet. Då rimlighetsavvägningen i 2 kap. 7 § MB ofta blir aktuell vid en bedömning enligt 2 kap. 3 och 6 §§ MB kommer uppsatsens fokus ligga likväl på dessa paragrafer. Uppsatsens syfte är att utröna om vad som anses vara motiverat vid en avvägning av nyttan och kostnader, samt om det finns några metoder som kan användas som hjälpmedel. En delfråga i uppsatsen är att undersöka om hänsyn tas till samhällsekonomiska analyser vid en bedömning.
Resultatet av undersökningen tyder på att det är ett ostadigt rättsområde. Det finns inte någon enhetlighet vid tillämpningen. Det är svårt att på ett tydligt och konkret sätt redogöra för hur domstolen gör sin bedömning av rimlighetsavvägningen. Det är en variation mellan domstolsavgöranden rörande hur utförliga domstolen har valt att vara i sina domskäl. Det har i stor utsträckning försvårat denna undersökning. Att lägga ansvaret att utveckla rättsområdet på praxis har inte varit ett särskilt lyckat förfarande från lagstiftarens sida. Det är inte enbart visat i denna uppsats, utan det är även något som Naturvårdsverket påvisar i en av deras senaste undersökningar. Det man kan göra är att ta vägledning från praxis och möjligen applicera det på andra verksamheter. Man bör dock göra det med viss restriktion. Det som krävs för att hantera detta problem är att lagstiftaren antingen reviderar lagtexten till att bli utförligare om hur man i praktiken ska tillämpa de allmänna hänsynsreglerna. Alternativt att domstolen rent generellt förbättrar sina domskäl så att de har ett tydligare innehåll och påvisar hur domstolen har gjort sin bedömning. Om det är så att domstolen inte har möjlighet att redogöra för sin bedömning kommer rättsområdet fortsätta att kännas slumpartad och det kommer förbli rättsosäkert. (Less)
Abstract
The general rules of consideration, which can be found in the second chapter of the Swedish Environmental Code, was enacted with the purpose of enhancing environmental awareness generally in the society. They ought be used as means to fulfil the goal of sustainable development. The general rules of consideration are to be practised in a way so they are not unreasonable according to the 7th article in the second chapter. Measures and precautions are supposed to be environmentally motivated but still be economically reasonable. However, it has proven hard to know how to make this kind of assessment, since the legal text does not specify it more clearly. During the enactment, criticism was put fourth in the shape of a concern that the laws... (More)
The general rules of consideration, which can be found in the second chapter of the Swedish Environmental Code, was enacted with the purpose of enhancing environmental awareness generally in the society. They ought be used as means to fulfil the goal of sustainable development. The general rules of consideration are to be practised in a way so they are not unreasonable according to the 7th article in the second chapter. Measures and precautions are supposed to be environmentally motivated but still be economically reasonable. However, it has proven hard to know how to make this kind of assessment, since the legal text does not specify it more clearly. During the enactment, criticism was put fourth in the shape of a concern that the laws are ill defined and uncertain. The proposal to the enactment of the Swedish Environmental Code indicated that the responsibility lies on custom law to develop the articles.
Since there is ambiguity in regards to how to apply this article, the following study will examine how it is applied in current law. This will be done by examining legislative history and doctrine, as well as to analyse custom law that have been established these last few years. The study intends to research if it is possible to establish uniformity in the judgements and if there is any transparency and legal security. Since the reason assessment in the 7th article in the second chapter often becomes current in a judgment according to the 3rd and 6th articles in the second chapter, this study’s focus will also lie on these articles. The purpose of this study is to detail what could be considered reasonable when balancing benefits with costs, as well as see if there are any methods which can be used as tools. A part of the question in this study is to examine whether consideration is taken to cost/benefit analysis.
The result of this study suggests that this legal domain is unsteady. There is no consistency in the enforcement. That makes it hard to, in a transparent and concrete way, clarify as to how the law court makes their judgment of the reason assessment. It occurs to be a huge variation between the courts judgements in regards to how thorough the court have chosen to be in their grounds for their decisions. This has caused further difficulties in this study. To lay the responsibility to develop the legal area on custom law has not been a very successful procedure from the government’s side. This is not only revealed in this study, but it is also something that Naturvårdsverket detect in one of their latest reports. What you can do is to take guidance from custom law and possible apply it on other facilities. However, you ought to do it with some restriction. To resolve this problem of uncertainty it will demand that the legislator either revise the law to become more detailed about how to in practise enforce the general rules of consideration. An alternative is that the courts in general improve their grounds on the decision, so they have a clearer content and displays how the court should make their assessment. In case the court have no possibility to recite their assessment, this legal area will continue to feel coincidental and it will remain legally unsecure. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Widell, Linn LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The reason assessment in practice - An analysis of the law enforcement of the reason assessment found in the 7th article of the second chapter in the Swedish Environmental Code
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Miljörätt, De allmänna hänsynsreglerna, Rimlighetsavvägningen, Miljöbalken
language
Swedish
id
8513712
date added to LUP
2016-01-29 14:28:00
date last changed
2017-01-27 15:54:08
@misc{8513712,
  abstract     = {The general rules of consideration, which can be found in the second chapter of the Swedish Environmental Code, was enacted with the purpose of enhancing environmental awareness generally in the society. They ought be used as means to fulfil the goal of sustainable development. The general rules of consideration are to be practised in a way so they are not unreasonable according to the 7th article in the second chapter. Measures and precautions are supposed to be environmentally motivated but still be economically reasonable. However, it has proven hard to know how to make this kind of assessment, since the legal text does not specify it more clearly. During the enactment, criticism was put fourth in the shape of a concern that the laws are ill defined and uncertain. The proposal to the enactment of the Swedish Environmental Code indicated that the responsibility lies on custom law to develop the articles.
Since there is ambiguity in regards to how to apply this article, the following study will examine how it is applied in current law. This will be done by examining legislative history and doctrine, as well as to analyse custom law that have been established these last few years. The study intends to research if it is possible to establish uniformity in the judgements and if there is any transparency and legal security. Since the reason assessment in the 7th article in the second chapter often becomes current in a judgment according to the 3rd and 6th articles in the second chapter, this study’s focus will also lie on these articles. The purpose of this study is to detail what could be considered reasonable when balancing benefits with costs, as well as see if there are any methods which can be used as tools. A part of the question in this study is to examine whether consideration is taken to cost/benefit analysis.
The result of this study suggests that this legal domain is unsteady. There is no consistency in the enforcement. That makes it hard to, in a transparent and concrete way, clarify as to how the law court makes their judgment of the reason assessment. It occurs to be a huge variation between the courts judgements in regards to how thorough the court have chosen to be in their grounds for their decisions. This has caused further difficulties in this study. To lay the responsibility to develop the legal area on custom law has not been a very successful procedure from the government’s side. This is not only revealed in this study, but it is also something that Naturvårdsverket detect in one of their latest reports. What you can do is to take guidance from custom law and possible apply it on other facilities. However, you ought to do it with some restriction. To resolve this problem of uncertainty it will demand that the legislator either revise the law to become more detailed about how to in practise enforce the general rules of consideration. An alternative is that the courts in general improve their grounds on the decision, so they have a clearer content and displays how the court should make their assessment. In case the court have no possibility to recite their assessment, this legal area will continue to feel coincidental and it will remain legally unsecure.},
  author       = {Widell, Linn},
  keyword      = {Miljörätt,De allmänna hänsynsreglerna,Rimlighetsavvägningen,Miljöbalken},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rimlighetsavvägningen i praktiken - Analys av rättstillämpningen av rimlighetsavvägningsregeln i 2 kap. 7 § miljöbalken},
  year         = {2015},
}