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Anlitandet av underleverantörer i offentlig upphandling - särskilt om kravställande mot underleverantörer

Andersson, Hanna LU (2016) JURM02 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Anlitandet av underleverantörer för genomförande av kontrakt utgör ett vanligt inslag även i offentliga upphandlingar. Därmed innehåller upphandlingslagstiftningen bestämmelser som berör underleverantörer. I april 2016 träder ett nytt upphandlingsdirektiv (2014/24/EU) i kraft. En del av förändringarna i direktivet syftar till att möjliggöra för upphandlande myndigheter att ställa miljö- och sociala krav gentemot olika ekonomiska aktörer i offentlig upphandling. I den svenska implementeringsprocessen av direktivet har införandet av sociala hänsyn, främst i form av villkor rörande arbetsrättsliga skyldigheter, visat sig vara problematiskt. Likaså är frågan om huruvida krav bör riktas till underleverantörer i alla led föremål för utredning... (More)
Anlitandet av underleverantörer för genomförande av kontrakt utgör ett vanligt inslag även i offentliga upphandlingar. Därmed innehåller upphandlingslagstiftningen bestämmelser som berör underleverantörer. I april 2016 träder ett nytt upphandlingsdirektiv (2014/24/EU) i kraft. En del av förändringarna i direktivet syftar till att möjliggöra för upphandlande myndigheter att ställa miljö- och sociala krav gentemot olika ekonomiska aktörer i offentlig upphandling. I den svenska implementeringsprocessen av direktivet har införandet av sociala hänsyn, främst i form av villkor rörande arbetsrättsliga skyldigheter, visat sig vara problematiskt. Likaså är frågan om huruvida krav bör riktas till underleverantörer i alla led föremål för utredning och diskussion; i såväl den juridiska, politiska som den allmänna debatten.

Mot bakgrund av underleverantörers roll i genomförande av offentliga kontakt och de förändringar som föreskrivits i det nya direktivet behandlar uppsatsen anlitandet av underleverantörer inom ramen för LOU. Uppsatsen presenterar de förändringar i direktiv 2014/42/EU som berör underleverantörer och utreder vilka ändrade förutsättningar som följer för underleverantörer. Uppsatsen utreder även vilka krav som kan ställas gentemot underleverantörer i offentlig upphandling och behandlar särskilt den problematik som är förenad med ett kravställande mot underleverantörer i alla led.

Den största förändringen i direktivet består i ett ökat fokus på socialt ansvarstagande upphandlingar. Denna förändringen uttrycks ytterst genom möjligheten att ställa krav mot underleverantörer i alla led i leverantörskedjan. Direktivet innehåller även bestämmelser som hjälper upphandlande myndigheter att kontrollera att krav som ställs uppfylls. Dessutom innehåller direktivet en bestämmelse som möjliggör direktbetalning till underleverantörer. Enligt min mening kan det inte förväntas att direktbetalningsmekanismen inkluderas i den svenska implementeringen.

Uppsatsen konstaterar vidare att direktivet möjliggör att krav som ställs på en huvudleverantör även kan ställas mot underleverantörer. Men samtidigt innebär ett kravställande gentemot alla led i leverantörskedjan att förutsättningarna för underleverantörers medverkan i offentliga upphandlingar ändras. Ett kravställande mot underleverantörer innebär att underleverantörerna måste ta hänsyn till villkor som den upphandlande myndigheten ställer i upphandlingskontraktet - trots att de juridiskt sett inte utgör en avtalspart i upphandlingskontraktet. Ett omfattande kravställande kan också få konsekvenser för huvudleverantörernas anlitande av underleverantörer och kanske främst på huvudleverantörernas vilja att lämna anbud. Det kan i sin tur inverka negativt på målsättningen om sund konkurrens. Vidare bör enligt min mening målsättningen om en sund konkurrens äga företräde framför strävan att åstadkomma socialt ansvarstagande upphandlingar. Uppsatsens slutsats instämmer därför med Konkurrensverkets förslag om att säkerhetsställande av krav endast bör ske i leverantörskedjans första led och därmed inte gentemot underleverantörer i alla led. (Less)
Abstract
The fact that contractors use subcontractors when performing a contract is a common element in public procurements. Due to this the legislation regarding public procurement also includes provisions concerning subcontractors. In April 2016 a new public procurement directive (2014/24/EU) enters into force and it empathizes the importance of environmental and social considerations in public contracts. However, social considerations and especially those concerning labor law, has proved to be difficult to implement in the coming Swedish legislation. Also, the question regarding if such considerations should be directed towards subcontractors further down the subcontracting chain has become subject of great discussion; both in the legal,... (More)
The fact that contractors use subcontractors when performing a contract is a common element in public procurements. Due to this the legislation regarding public procurement also includes provisions concerning subcontractors. In April 2016 a new public procurement directive (2014/24/EU) enters into force and it empathizes the importance of environmental and social considerations in public contracts. However, social considerations and especially those concerning labor law, has proved to be difficult to implement in the coming Swedish legislation. Also, the question regarding if such considerations should be directed towards subcontractors further down the subcontracting chain has become subject of great discussion; both in the legal, political and general debate.

Bearing in mind the role of subcontractors in the performance of public contacts and the changes prescribed in the new directive, this essay initially deals with the provisions regarding subcontractors included in the Swedish public procurement legislation. As to the purpose of the essay it aims to presents changes within the directive 2014/24/EU and investigates what impact these changes will have on subcontractors. The essay also investigates what kind of criterions the directive aims to direct towards subcontractors. Especially with regards to the question of whether such demands also will be directed towards subcontractors further down the contracting chain.

The essay concludes that the enhanced focus on social considerations constitutes the most significate adjustment in the directive. It can clearly be illustrated by the possibility a contacting authority has to put demands towards all contactors in a contracting chain. Furthermore, the directive contains a series of changes that concerns the engagement of subcontractors, such as a possibility for contracting authorities to transfer due payments directly to the to the subcontractor. It is however my opinion that this particular provision will not be included in the Swedish implementation of the directive.

Furthermore, the essay concludes that the directive does allow a contracting authority to demand fulfillment of social considerations from both contractors and their subcontractors. However, it is important that the contracting authority considers the fundamental principles of EU-law and public procurement when setting such demands. Consequently, the inclusion of social considerations has an impact on the prospects of participation for subcontractors in public contracts. This is due to the fact that subcontractors have to regard the criterions set by the contacting authority, despite the fact that they are not actually regarded as a contracting party in relation to the public contract. If criterions are to be set for the entire contracting chain, it can affect the way main contractors engage subcontractors for the performance of public contacts, and potentially also affect the main contactors willingness to bid for a contract. Thus the extensive inclusion of social considerations can have a negative impact on the ambition of creating a healthy competition and promoting free movement of goods and services. When social considerations impose on the promotion of healthy competition, it is my opinion that a healthy competition should be prioritized. The final conclusion is therefore that the possibility of putting demands down the full length of the contacting chain should not be implemented in Swedish public procurement law. Instead it would be a more suitable solution to put such demands only towards the the main contractor and the subcontractors in the first line of the chain. In this way, both the objective regarding social consideration and healthy competition can be promoted. (Less)
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author
Andersson, Hanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The use of subcontractors in public procurement - focusing on demands regarding social considerations within the contracting chain
course
JURM02 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Offentlig upphandling, EU-rätt, public procurement, EU law, sociala krav, underleverantörer
language
Swedish
id
8513963
date added to LUP
2016-03-21 10:28:04
date last changed
2016-03-21 10:28:04
@misc{8513963,
  abstract     = {The fact that contractors use subcontractors when performing a contract is a common element in public procurements. Due to this the legislation regarding public procurement also includes provisions concerning subcontractors. In April 2016 a new public procurement directive (2014/24/EU) enters into force and it empathizes the importance of environmental and social considerations in public contracts. However, social considerations and especially those concerning labor law, has proved to be difficult to implement in the coming Swedish legislation. Also, the question regarding if such considerations should be directed towards subcontractors further down the subcontracting chain has become subject of great discussion; both in the legal, political and general debate. 

Bearing in mind the role of subcontractors in the performance of public contacts and the changes prescribed in the new directive, this essay initially deals with the provisions regarding subcontractors included in the Swedish public procurement legislation. As to the purpose of the essay it aims to presents changes within the directive 2014/24/EU and investigates what impact these changes will have on subcontractors. The essay also investigates what kind of criterions the directive aims to direct towards subcontractors. Especially with regards to the question of whether such demands also will be directed towards subcontractors further down the contracting chain. 

The essay concludes that the enhanced focus on social considerations constitutes the most significate adjustment in the directive. It can clearly be illustrated by the possibility a contacting authority has to put demands towards all contactors in a contracting chain. Furthermore, the directive contains a series of changes that concerns the engagement of subcontractors, such as a possibility for contracting authorities to transfer due payments directly to the to the subcontractor. It is however my opinion that this particular provision will not be included in the Swedish implementation of the directive. 

Furthermore, the essay concludes that the directive does allow a contracting authority to demand fulfillment of social considerations from both contractors and their subcontractors. However, it is important that the contracting authority considers the fundamental principles of EU-law and public procurement when setting such demands. Consequently, the inclusion of social considerations has an impact on the prospects of participation for subcontractors in public contracts. This is due to the fact that subcontractors have to regard the criterions set by the contacting authority, despite the fact that they are not actually regarded as a contracting party in relation to the public contract. If criterions are to be set for the entire contracting chain, it can affect the way main contractors engage subcontractors for the performance of public contacts, and potentially also affect the main contactors willingness to bid for a contract. Thus the extensive inclusion of social considerations can have a negative impact on the ambition of creating a healthy competition and promoting free movement of goods and services. When social considerations impose on the promotion of healthy competition, it is my opinion that a healthy competition should be prioritized. The final conclusion is therefore that the possibility of putting demands down the full length of the contacting chain should not be implemented in Swedish public procurement law. Instead it would be a more suitable solution to put such demands only towards the the main contractor and the subcontractors in the first line of the chain. In this way, both the objective regarding social consideration and healthy competition can be promoted.},
  author       = {Andersson, Hanna},
  keyword      = {Offentlig upphandling,EU-rätt,public procurement,EU law,sociala krav,underleverantörer},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Anlitandet av underleverantörer i offentlig upphandling - särskilt om kravställande mot underleverantörer},
  year         = {2016},
}