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Likabehandling och proportionalitet - praktisk tillämpning av principerna vid offentlig upphandling

Frondelius, Kajsa LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Likabehandling och proportionalitet tillhör de grundläggande principer som en upphandlande myndighet ska iaktta vid genomförandet av en offentlig upphandling. Likabehandlingsprincipen innebär att lika fall ska behandlas lika och olika fall ska inte behandlas lika om inte sakliga skäl föreligger. Proportionalitetsprincipen innebär att alla åtgärder som vidtas ska vara nödvändiga och lämpliga med hänsyn till det syfte som eftersträvas i upphandlingen. Den upphandlande myndigheten har bevisbördan för att påvisa att ett mindre ingripande alternativ saknas. Bedömningen ska genomföras som en strukturerad avvägning mellan motstående intressen. För att bedöma om en upphandlande myndighet under en upphandling brutit mot proportionalitetsprincipen... (More)
Likabehandling och proportionalitet tillhör de grundläggande principer som en upphandlande myndighet ska iaktta vid genomförandet av en offentlig upphandling. Likabehandlingsprincipen innebär att lika fall ska behandlas lika och olika fall ska inte behandlas lika om inte sakliga skäl föreligger. Proportionalitetsprincipen innebär att alla åtgärder som vidtas ska vara nödvändiga och lämpliga med hänsyn till det syfte som eftersträvas i upphandlingen. Den upphandlande myndigheten har bevisbördan för att påvisa att ett mindre ingripande alternativ saknas. Bedömningen ska genomföras som en strukturerad avvägning mellan motstående intressen. För att bedöma om en upphandlande myndighet under en upphandling brutit mot proportionalitetsprincipen kan domstolen använda en bedömning i tre steg. Bedömning avser om åtgärden är lämplig och effektiv för att uppnå det eftersträvade syftet och ifall åtgärden är nödvändig så tillvida att det saknas mindre ingripande alternativ. Vidare avser bedömningen om den negativa effekten som åtgärden får, och om åtgärden står i proportion till det eftersträvade syftet.
Direktiv 2014/24/EU innebär viss tillspetsning av principerna, men de större nyheterna i direktivet berör endast principerna indirekt. Då det är av vikt att iaktta principerna under upphandlingens samtliga faser, även särskilt relevant är det att beakta principerna även vid utvärdering av onormalt låga anbud, när ett lågt anbud av en marknadsdominant ska förkastas, eller i fall av ändringar eller kompletteringar av anbud.
Av utredningen i uppsatsen framkommer att proportionalitetsprincipen är av större vikt att iaktta än likabehandlingsprincipen. Proportionalitetsprincipen tillämpas på upphandlingen i stort och inte mellan anbudsgivare som likabehandlingsprincipen gör. Ingivande av ett onormalt lågt anbud eller ett lågt anbud som marknadsdominant är konkurrensstörande. Vid diskvalificering av ett onormalt lågt anbud eller en marknadsdominant från ett upphandlingsförfarande måste dock likabehandlingsprincipen och proportionalitetsprincipen iakttas. Ur ett praktiskt perspektiv är ett välmotiverat förfrågningsunderlag och ett medvetet handlande vid förfrågan om förtydliganden, kompletteringar och vid uteslutningar ett bra sätt att skydda mot överprövningar. (Less)
Abstract
The contracting authority must treat all economic operators equally and observe the principle of proportionality during the realization of a public procurement. The principle of equality states that similar cases should be treated equally and different cases should not be treated equally unless substantial reasons exist. The principle of proportionality states that all measures taken must be necessary and appropriate to the purpose of the procurement. The contracting authority has the burden of the proof to demonstrate the lack of less intrusive alternative measures. The proportionality assessment that the court will carry out is based on a structured balance between opposing interests. To assess if a contracting authority has violated the... (More)
The contracting authority must treat all economic operators equally and observe the principle of proportionality during the realization of a public procurement. The principle of equality states that similar cases should be treated equally and different cases should not be treated equally unless substantial reasons exist. The principle of proportionality states that all measures taken must be necessary and appropriate to the purpose of the procurement. The contracting authority has the burden of the proof to demonstrate the lack of less intrusive alternative measures. The proportionality assessment that the court will carry out is based on a structured balance between opposing interests. To assess if a contracting authority has violated the principle of proportionality the court can use an assessment of three basic criteria developed through the case law. The assessment relates to whether the measure is appropriate and effective in achieving the desired objective in the procurement, if the measure is necessary in the sense that there is no less intrusive alternative than the one taken and if the adverse effect is proportionate to the pursued objective of the procurement.
The directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement may result in an uplifting of the principles. The news in the directive will only affect the principles in an indirect manner. It is of the outmost importance to observe the principles during all stages of the public procurement. It is relevant to consider the principles during the evaluation of abnormally low tenders, rejection of a low tender submitted by a dominant on the market, but also when the tender is altered or complemented.
In this master thesis the inquiry has shown that the case law states that the principle pf proportionality is of greater importance to observe than the principle of equal treatment. The principle of proportionality is applicable on the procurement per se and not between the tenderer. An abnormally low tender or low tender submitted by a dominant on the market interferes with the competition. In case of disqualifying an abnormally low tender or a dominant on the market from the procurement procedure the principles must be taken into consideration. From a practical point of view, a well motivated contract document and a conscious acting while asking for clarification and additions to the tender, this should also be considered during the disqualification of a tenderer to avoid review procedure. (Less)
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author
Frondelius, Kajsa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The principles of equal treatment and proportionality - the principles of public procurements put in to practice
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
public procurement, offentlig upphandling, EU-law, EU-rätt
language
Swedish
id
8513981
date added to LUP
2016-03-08 15:32:24
date last changed
2016-03-08 15:32:24
@misc{8513981,
  abstract     = {The contracting authority must treat all economic operators equally and observe the principle of proportionality during the realization of a public procurement. The principle of equality states that similar cases should be treated equally and different cases should not be treated equally unless substantial reasons exist. The principle of proportionality states that all measures taken must be necessary and appropriate to the purpose of the procurement. The contracting authority has the burden of the proof to demonstrate the lack of less intrusive alternative measures. The proportionality assessment that the court will carry out is based on a structured balance between opposing interests. To assess if a contracting authority has violated the principle of proportionality the court can use an assessment of three basic criteria developed through the case law. The assessment relates to whether the measure is appropriate and effective in achieving the desired objective in the procurement, if the measure is necessary in the sense that there is no less intrusive alternative than the one taken and if the adverse effect is proportionate to the pursued objective of the procurement.
The directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement may result in an uplifting of the principles. The news in the directive will only affect the principles in an indirect manner. It is of the outmost importance to observe the principles during all stages of the public procurement. It is relevant to consider the principles during the evaluation of abnormally low tenders, rejection of a low tender submitted by a dominant on the market, but also when the tender is altered or complemented.
In this master thesis the inquiry has shown that the case law states that the principle pf proportionality is of greater importance to observe than the principle of equal treatment. The principle of proportionality is applicable on the procurement per se and not between the tenderer. An abnormally low tender or low tender submitted by a dominant on the market interferes with the competition. In case of disqualifying an abnormally low tender or a dominant on the market from the procurement procedure the principles must be taken into consideration. From a practical point of view, a well motivated contract document and a conscious acting while asking for clarification and additions to the tender, this should also be considered during the disqualification of a tenderer to avoid review procedure.},
  author       = {Frondelius, Kajsa},
  keyword      = {public procurement,offentlig upphandling,EU-law,EU-rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Likabehandling och proportionalitet - praktisk tillämpning av principerna vid offentlig upphandling},
  year         = {2015},
}