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De unga kvinnorna och männen vi sviker - en komparativ studie av svensk och dansk rätt avseende bevismöjligheterna vid medverkan till hedersmord

Fröberg, Johanna LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sedan mitten av 1990-talet och fram till idag har Sverige och det svenska rättsväsendet fått uppleva att unga kvinnor och män mördats i hederns namn. Det var främst i samband med morden på Pela och Fadime som be-greppet hedersmord fick fäste i det svenska allmänna medvetandet. Hedersmord är ett brott vars motiv går ut på att återupprätta en familjs förlorade heder, efter det att en flicka, pojke, kvinna eller man anses ha vanhedrat hedern genom att bryta mot hederskoden; familjens normer och regler. Det karaktäristiska dragen för hedersmord är den kollektiva sfären av eventuella medverkanden. Detta kan hänföras till att familjen och släkten som utgångspunkt både godkänt och medverkat till gärningen som medfört att hedersmord klassificeras... (More)
Sedan mitten av 1990-talet och fram till idag har Sverige och det svenska rättsväsendet fått uppleva att unga kvinnor och män mördats i hederns namn. Det var främst i samband med morden på Pela och Fadime som be-greppet hedersmord fick fäste i det svenska allmänna medvetandet. Hedersmord är ett brott vars motiv går ut på att återupprätta en familjs förlorade heder, efter det att en flicka, pojke, kvinna eller man anses ha vanhedrat hedern genom att bryta mot hederskoden; familjens normer och regler. Det karaktäristiska dragen för hedersmord är den kollektiva sfären av eventuella medverkanden. Detta kan hänföras till att familjen och släkten som utgångspunkt både godkänt och medverkat till gärningen som medfört att hedersmord klassificeras som kollektivbaserade brott. Gärningsmannen är ofta en yngre manlig släkting som efter påtryckningar från resterande familjemedlemmar, främst de manliga, utför mordet. Trots den kollektiva sfären är det endast gärningsmannen som fälls till ansvar. Eftersom inga medverkanden fälls till ansvar har uppsatsen således till syfte att utreda: vilken bevisning krävs för att medverkanden ska fällas till ansvar för hedersmord?

År 2006 meddelade Højesteret (motsvarar HD i Sverige) en historisk dom. Domen utmärkte sig eftersom Danmark var det första landet i Europa som dömde åtta personer, utöver gärningsmannen, till ansvar för att ha medverkat till ett hedersmord. Den avgörande faktorn var den omfattande bevisning som åklagaren presenterade. Bevisningen var resultatet av polisens insikt om att mordet hade begåtts med ett hedersmotiv och arbetade således redan inledningsvis med att samla in bevisning som kunde fälla samtliga medverkanden till ansvar. Det är med hänsyn till den danska domen som uppsatsen bygger på en komparation, detta för att se om det svenska rättsväsendet kan ta lärdom av det danska rättsväsendet.

Hedersmord är svåra att utreda på grund av den kollektiva sfären. Verksamma inom det svenska rättsväsendet är eniga om att det är svårt att fast-ställa varje enskild persons medverkan och därigenom deras uppsåt. Den bevisning som finns avseende de medverkande till hedersmordet måste nå upp till beviskravet ställt utom rimligt tvivel. Avsaknad av bevisning medför att åklagaren inte väcker åtal mot eventuella medhjälpare och anstiftare eftersom vederbörande inte ser en fällande dom, vilket i sin tur medför att de inte kan lagföras. Problematiken avseende detta kan hänföras till att det svenska rättsväsendet som utgångspunkt endast söker efter gärningsmannen; personen som står närmst den otillåtna gärningen. För att rättsväsendet inte ska förbise eventuella medverkande bör svensk lagstiftning införa en särreglering avseende hedersmotivet som en straffskärpningsgrund. Straffskärpningsgrunden skulle fungera som en kunskapsspridare vilket i sin tur skulle underlätta för rättsväsendet, både i den utredande samt dömande verksamheten. Det är främst av betydelse att polisen och åklagaren har kunskap beträffande hedersmord så att rätt utredningsåtgärder vidtas då det ankommer dem att samla in bevisning för en framtida rättegång. För att de svenska domstolarna ska kunna döma personer som medverkat till ett hedersmord krävs det omfattande bevisning. Utifrån rättsfallen går det att konstatera att bevisningen som utgångspunkt både ska vara skriftlig och muntlig. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Since the middle of 1990s and up to today, Sweden and the Swedish justice system have experienced that young men and women are being killed in the name of honour. It was mainly in connection with the murder of Pela and Fadime that the concept of honour killings was rooted in the Swedish public consciousness. Honour killings are crimes whose motive is to re-establish a family’s lost honour, after a girl, boy, woman or man is considered to have dishonoured the honour by violating the honourcode; the family’s norms and rules. The characteristic features of an honour killings are therefore the collective realm of potential participants to the murder. Honour killings are classified as collective crimes because of the family’s participation. The... (More)
Since the middle of 1990s and up to today, Sweden and the Swedish justice system have experienced that young men and women are being killed in the name of honour. It was mainly in connection with the murder of Pela and Fadime that the concept of honour killings was rooted in the Swedish public consciousness. Honour killings are crimes whose motive is to re-establish a family’s lost honour, after a girl, boy, woman or man is considered to have dishonoured the honour by violating the honourcode; the family’s norms and rules. The characteristic features of an honour killings are therefore the collective realm of potential participants to the murder. Honour killings are classified as collective crimes because of the family’s participation. The perpetrator is often a younger male relative of the victim who is pressured by the remaining family members to carry out the murder. Despite the public sphere, only the perpetrator is the one who is being sentenced. Since no accomplices are being sentenced this study therefore aims to investigate: which evidence is required to convict accomplices of an honour killing?

In 2006, the Højesteret (conform to the Swedish HD) announced a historic judgement. The judgment was historic because Denmark was the first country in Europe who sentenced eight people, in addition to the perpetrator, for the responsibility of having abetted to an honour killing. The determining factor in this case was the extensive evidence that the prosecutor presented. The evidence gained by the insight of the police was the contributing factor that proved that the murder had been committed with an honourable motive, thus resulting in that proper investigation measures being taken. According to this the evidence was sufficient for a conviction and therefore Højesteret convicted all those that hade been involved in the murder. It is with regard to the Danish judgment that this study is based on a comparison between Swedish and Danish law. The reason is to see if the Swedish justice system can learn something from the Danish justice system.

Honour killings are difficult to investigate because of the collective sphere of possible accomplices. Employees in the Swedish justice system agrees that it is difficult to determine each individual's involvement and hence their intent. In order to hold the accomplices responsible for the murder the evidence need to reach up to the standard of evidence: beyond a reasonable doubt. Lack of evidence means that the prosecutor can’t raise charges against any complicities or instigators because she or he does not see a conviction, which means that accomplices can’t be held responsible for the murder. The problems regarding why the prosecutor doesn’t raise charges against possible accomplices can be attributed to the Swedish justice system basically only looks for the perpetrator. To prevent the justice system from overlooking potential participants the Swedish legislation should introduce a special rule concerning the honour motive as an aggravating circumstance. The aggravating circumstance would serve as a knowledge-spreader which in turn would facilitate the justice system, in both the investigative and adjudication process. It is mainly of importance that the police and the prosecutor have knowledge regarding honour killings so that proper investigative measures are taken. This is because it is their responsibility to gather sufficient evidence for future trials. To the Swedish courts to judge the people who accomplies in honour killings, extensive evidence are required. In according to the case law the evidence most often need to be written and oral. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Fröberg, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The young women and men that we fail - A comparative study of Swedish and Danish law concerning evidence of possibilities for involvement in honour killings
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
hedersmord, medverkansansvar, medverkan till hedersmord, Danmark, Sverige, hedersmotiv, straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8514042
date added to LUP
2016-02-04 11:50:45
date last changed
2016-02-04 11:50:45
@misc{8514042,
  abstract     = {Since the middle of 1990s and up to today, Sweden and the Swedish justice system have experienced that young men and women are being killed in the name of honour. It was mainly in connection with the murder of Pela and Fadime that the concept of honour killings was rooted in the Swedish public consciousness. Honour killings are crimes whose motive is to re-establish a family’s lost honour, after a girl, boy, woman or man is considered to have dishonoured the honour by violating the honourcode; the family’s norms and rules. The characteristic features of an honour killings are therefore the collective realm of potential participants to the murder. Honour killings are classified as collective crimes because of the family’s participation. The perpetrator is often a younger male relative of the victim who is pressured by the remaining family members to carry out the murder. Despite the public sphere, only the perpetrator is the one who is being sentenced. Since no accomplices are being sentenced this study therefore aims to investigate: which evidence is required to convict accomplices of an honour killing? 

In 2006, the Højesteret (conform to the Swedish HD) announced a historic judgement. The judgment was historic because Denmark was the first country in Europe who sentenced eight people, in addition to the perpetrator, for the responsibility of having abetted to an honour killing. The determining factor in this case was the extensive evidence that the prosecutor presented. The evidence gained by the insight of the police was the contributing factor that proved that the murder had been committed with an honourable motive, thus resulting in that proper investigation measures being taken. According to this the evidence was sufficient for a conviction and therefore Højesteret convicted all those that hade been involved in the murder. It is with regard to the Danish judgment that this study is based on a comparison between Swedish and Danish law. The reason is to see if the Swedish justice system can learn something from the Danish justice system. 

Honour killings are difficult to investigate because of the collective sphere of possible accomplices. Employees in the Swedish justice system agrees that it is difficult to determine each individual's involvement and hence their intent. In order to hold the accomplices responsible for the murder the evidence need to reach up to the standard of evidence: beyond a reasonable doubt. Lack of evidence means that the prosecutor can’t raise charges against any complicities or instigators because she or he does not see a conviction, which means that accomplices can’t be held responsible for the murder. The problems regarding why the prosecutor doesn’t raise charges against possible accomplices can be attributed to the Swedish justice system basically only looks for the perpetrator. To prevent the justice system from overlooking potential participants the Swedish legislation should introduce a special rule concerning the honour motive as an aggravating circumstance. The aggravating circumstance would serve as a knowledge-spreader which in turn would facilitate the justice system, in both the investigative and adjudication process. It is mainly of importance that the police and the prosecutor have knowledge regarding honour killings so that proper investigative measures are taken. This is because it is their responsibility to gather sufficient evidence for future trials. To the Swedish courts to judge the people who accomplies in honour killings, extensive evidence are required. In according to the case law the evidence most often need to be written and oral.},
  author       = {Fröberg, Johanna},
  keyword      = {hedersmord,medverkansansvar,medverkan till hedersmord,Danmark,Sverige,hedersmotiv,straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {De unga kvinnorna och männen vi sviker - en komparativ studie av svensk och dansk rätt avseende bevismöjligheterna vid medverkan till hedersmord},
  year         = {2015},
}