Advanced

En vraklagstiftning på djupt vatten? Om den oidentifierade ägarens ansvar vid miljöfarliga vrak och Vrakborttagningskonventionens eventuella påverkan på det svenska rättsläget

Alvestrand, Ulrica LU (2015) LAGM01 20152
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppskattningsvis ligger idag mellan 2,5 till 20 miljoner ton olja i vrak runt världens kuster. Under tusentals år har den kommersiella sjöfarten dominerat haven. Det var dock inte förrän industrialiseringen på 1800-talet som olja började användas i allt större utsträckning. I den kommersiella sjöfarten är frakt av miljöfarliga ämnen inte något ovanligt, varje dag skeppas cirka en halv miljon ton olja förbi Sveriges kuster.

I Sverige är det, generellt sett, lätt att identifiera ägaren till ett vrak. I de fall en identifiering av ägaren kan göras, kan ägaren eller dess företrädare trots allt ibland vara omöjliga att hitta. Då vrakansvaret, inklusive betalnings-ansvaret för vrakåtgärder, tillkommer ägaren av vraket kan det ibland, med... (More)
Uppskattningsvis ligger idag mellan 2,5 till 20 miljoner ton olja i vrak runt världens kuster. Under tusentals år har den kommersiella sjöfarten dominerat haven. Det var dock inte förrän industrialiseringen på 1800-talet som olja började användas i allt större utsträckning. I den kommersiella sjöfarten är frakt av miljöfarliga ämnen inte något ovanligt, varje dag skeppas cirka en halv miljon ton olja förbi Sveriges kuster.

I Sverige är det, generellt sett, lätt att identifiera ägaren till ett vrak. I de fall en identifiering av ägaren kan göras, kan ägaren eller dess företrädare trots allt ibland vara omöjliga att hitta. Då vrakansvaret, inklusive betalnings-ansvaret för vrakåtgärder, tillkommer ägaren av vraket kan det ibland, med utgångspunkt i nyss nämnda, vara svårt eller till och med omöjligt att få betalt. Vrakrättens akilleshäl är således situationen då en ägare till ett miljöfarligt vrak inte går att identifieras eller hittas samt i slutändan är i stånd att betala. Idag finns ingen uttömmande lagstiftning på området och ett flertal rapporter har visat att rättsläget är oklart. Detta till trots att det år 2007 antogs en ny internationell konvention rörande vrakborttagning av IMO, den så kallade Vrakborttagningskonventionen. Konventionen har till syfte att försöka harmonisera vrakrätten och främja ett skyndsamt borttagande av vrak. Konventionen trädde i kraft den 14 april 2015. Trots ett flertal positiva utredningar och rapporter om en svensk ratificering av konventionen har detta inte ännu skett.

Arbetet syftar till att analysera och redogöra för det internationella och nationella svenska rättsläget som ligger till grund för ansvaret vid miljöfarliga vrak. Vidare är syftet att analysera vilken påverkan Vrakborttagningskonventionen kan ha på vårt svenska rättsläge efter en eventuell ratificering av konventionen.

Trots att världens ögon idag är inriktade på vilka förändringar som kan göras för vårt klimat är det på vrakrättens område mycket som återstår. En enhetlig och tydlig lagstiftning är eftersträvansvärd när det rör ansvar för miljöfarliga vrak. Vrakägaren är som huvudregel ansvarig för de åtgärder som åligger denne. I de fall ägaren inte vidtar åtgärder som denne är skyldig att utföra enligt internationell eller svensk nationell lag, har ansvaret kanaliserats genom analogier av lagstiftning, praxis, doktrin och sedvänja till stat och kommun. Konsekvenserna av detta och deras oklara ansvarighetsområden kan medföra stora risker för olika ekosystem generationer framöver. Nyligen framförda utredningar och rapporter förordar en ratificering av Vrakborttagningskonventionen. Jag ansluter mig till dessa slutsatser. Min mening är att säkerheten i våra svenska vatten på så sätt ökas. (Less)
Abstract
Currently, between 2,5 and 20 million tons of oil are found in shipwrecks around the world. For thousands of years, commercial sea transport has dominated the seas. However, it was not until the industrial revolution in the 19th century that oil started being used extensively. Within commercial sea transport, the shipping of environmentally hazardous substances is not uncommon. About half a million tons of oil are transported by the Swedish coastline every day.

In Sweden, it is normally rather easy to identify the owner of a shipwreck. In cases where the owner can be identified, the owner or the representative may nevertheless be impossible to find. The responsibility and liability of shipwrecks, including liability for payment of... (More)
Currently, between 2,5 and 20 million tons of oil are found in shipwrecks around the world. For thousands of years, commercial sea transport has dominated the seas. However, it was not until the industrial revolution in the 19th century that oil started being used extensively. Within commercial sea transport, the shipping of environmentally hazardous substances is not uncommon. About half a million tons of oil are transported by the Swedish coastline every day.

In Sweden, it is normally rather easy to identify the owner of a shipwreck. In cases where the owner can be identified, the owner or the representative may nevertheless be impossible to find. The responsibility and liability of shipwrecks, including liability for payment of shipwreck measures, are primarily connected to the shipwreck owner. With this in mind, it may be difficult, or in some cases even impossible, to get paid for these measures. The Achilles’ heel of shipwreck law is therefore when an owner of a hazardous shipwreck cannot be identified or found, and in the end is able to pay. Even though a new Convention on the Removal of Wrecks was adopted in 2007 and entered into force on April the 14th 2015, there is no comprehensive legislation in this area today. Several reports have shown that the legal situation is unclear. The purpose of the Convention is to try to harmonize shipwreck law and promote the expeditious removal of shipwrecks. Despite several positive studies and reports on a future ratification of the Convention, Sweden has not yet ratified it.

This work aims to analyze and describe the international and national Swedish legal position in regards to the liability of hazardous shipwrecks. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyze the impact that a possible ratification of the Convention on the Removal of Wrecks would have on Swedish legislation.

Although the eyes of the world today are focused on what kind of changes can be made for our climate, in the field of shipwrecks there is much more to be done. Regarding responsibilities for environmentally hazardous shipwrecks it is desirable to have a clear and coherent legislation. As a rule, the owner of a shipwreck is responsible for actions placed upon him. In case the owner does not undertake measures that he is obliged to carry out under international or Swedish national law, the responsibility lies with the state or local government through analogies of law, practice, doctrine and customary law. The consequences of this and the ambiguities regarding liability can entail great risks for different ecosystems for generations to come. The conclusions of recent investigations and reports point to a Swedish ratification of the Wreck Removal Convention in the near future. I agree with the conclusions drawn in these investigations and reports. In my point of view, this ratification would increase the safety of Swedish waters. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alvestrand, Ulrica LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A wreck legislation at the deep end? A study on the unidentified owner's liability for hazardous wrecks and the possible affect on the Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks on the Swedish legal position
course
LAGM01 20152
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Maritime law, Sjörätt, Miljörätt
language
Swedish
id
8514056
date added to LUP
2016-01-27 14:11:57
date last changed
2016-01-27 14:11:57
@misc{8514056,
  abstract     = {Currently, between 2,5 and 20 million tons of oil are found in shipwrecks around the world. For thousands of years, commercial sea transport has dominated the seas. However, it was not until the industrial revolution in the 19th century that oil started being used extensively. Within commercial sea transport, the shipping of environmentally hazardous substances is not uncommon. About half a million tons of oil are transported by the Swedish coastline every day. 

In Sweden, it is normally rather easy to identify the owner of a shipwreck. In cases where the owner can be identified, the owner or the representative may nevertheless be impossible to find. The responsibility and liability of shipwrecks, including liability for payment of shipwreck measures, are primarily connected to the shipwreck owner. With this in mind, it may be difficult, or in some cases even impossible, to get paid for these measures. The Achilles’ heel of shipwreck law is therefore when an owner of a hazardous shipwreck cannot be identified or found, and in the end is able to pay. Even though a new Convention on the Removal of Wrecks was adopted in 2007 and entered into force on April the 14th 2015, there is no comprehensive legislation in this area today. Several reports have shown that the legal situation is unclear. The purpose of the Convention is to try to harmonize shipwreck law and promote the expeditious removal of shipwrecks. Despite several positive studies and reports on a future ratification of the Convention, Sweden has not yet ratified it.

This work aims to analyze and describe the international and national Swedish legal position in regards to the liability of hazardous shipwrecks. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyze the impact that a possible ratification of the Convention on the Removal of Wrecks would have on Swedish legislation. 

Although the eyes of the world today are focused on what kind of changes can be made for our climate, in the field of shipwrecks there is much more to be done. Regarding responsibilities for environmentally hazardous shipwrecks it is desirable to have a clear and coherent legislation. As a rule, the owner of a shipwreck is responsible for actions placed upon him. In case the owner does not undertake measures that he is obliged to carry out under international or Swedish national law, the responsibility lies with the state or local government through analogies of law, practice, doctrine and customary law. The consequences of this and the ambiguities regarding liability can entail great risks for different ecosystems for generations to come. The conclusions of recent investigations and reports point to a Swedish ratification of the Wreck Removal Convention in the near future. I agree with the conclusions drawn in these investigations and reports. In my point of view, this ratification would increase the safety of Swedish waters.},
  author       = {Alvestrand, Ulrica},
  keyword      = {Maritime law,Sjörätt,Miljörätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En vraklagstiftning på djupt vatten? Om den oidentifierade ägarens ansvar vid miljöfarliga vrak och Vrakborttagningskonventionens eventuella påverkan på det svenska rättsläget},
  year         = {2015},
}