Advanced

Tankreaktorn - Analys och syntes av några olika kemiska reaktionssystem

Gustafsson, Bengt (1970) In MSc Theses
Department of Automatic Control
Abstract
In this work, which is to be used as a supplementary example to the educational literature in Automatic Control, at LTH, I have chosen one reactor, in the group of chemical reactors, for the examination. The chosen reactor is the continuos-flow, autothermic, nonadiabatic stirred-tank reactor. Required cooling of the reaction mixture is achieved by letting the reactor-tank be surrounded by a cooling-jacket. <br><br> Three different reaction systems will be treated: <br>1. Single reaction <br>2. Consecutive reactions <br>3. Parallel reactions <br><br> All the actual reactions are irreversible, exothermic and of the first order. <br><br> The nonlinear differential equations, describing material balances and energy balances, are formulated.... (More)
In this work, which is to be used as a supplementary example to the educational literature in Automatic Control, at LTH, I have chosen one reactor, in the group of chemical reactors, for the examination. The chosen reactor is the continuos-flow, autothermic, nonadiabatic stirred-tank reactor. Required cooling of the reaction mixture is achieved by letting the reactor-tank be surrounded by a cooling-jacket. <br><br> Three different reaction systems will be treated: <br>1. Single reaction <br>2. Consecutive reactions <br>3. Parallel reactions <br><br> All the actual reactions are irreversible, exothermic and of the first order. <br><br> The nonlinear differential equations, describing material balances and energy balances, are formulated. After linearizing these equations around the existing stationary states, the matrices A, B, C, and D of the standard form for system representation are calculated. This is done for various combinations for input signals and output signals in each stationary state. <br><br> Considering the energy balance of the coolant, two different methods are used in this work. <br>I. Neglect of coolant dynamics; use of average temperature. <br>II. Introduction of a differential equation, describing the coolant dynamics. <br><br> This results in two main systems, model I and model II, for each reaction type. The models are studied parallely and differences are observed. <br><br> The graphical description of heat production and heat rejection is a useful mean in reactor studies and will therefore be thoroughly discussed. <br><br> Adaption of the system models to computer analysis is made. Two subroutines are written; CREMA1 for the single reaction, and CREMA2 for the consecutive and the parallel reactions. Main results from use of these subroutines are: stationary states, heat functions, and system matrices. This forms the foundation of further analysis, which is done by computer calculation at the Data Central of Lund. FORTRAN-programs are used and the computer is a CD3600. <br><br> Main points in the analysis and synthesis of the systems: <br>1. Discussion of stability; eigenvalues of the system matrix A. <br>2. Test of observability and controllability. <br>3. By transformation to observable canonical form (for observable systems), the transfer functions, for systems with one input and one output signal, is determined. <br>4. Reconstruction of state-variables; suitable here in regard to the known difficulty in measuring concentrations. <br>5. Synthesis of controllable systems by a state-variable feedback control in order to get a system having the wanted qualities. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Gustafsson, Bengt
supervisor
organization
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
publication/series
MSc Theses
report number
TFRT-5071
ISSN
0346-5500
language
Swedish
id
8850751
date added to LUP
2016-03-29 16:17:25
date last changed
2016-03-29 16:17:25
@misc{8850751,
  abstract     = {In this work, which is to be used as a supplementary example to the educational literature in Automatic Control, at LTH, I have chosen one reactor, in the group of chemical reactors, for the examination. The chosen reactor is the continuos-flow, autothermic, nonadiabatic stirred-tank reactor. Required cooling of the reaction mixture is achieved by letting the reactor-tank be surrounded by a cooling-jacket. <br><br> Three different reaction systems will be treated: <br>1. Single reaction <br>2. Consecutive reactions <br>3. Parallel reactions <br><br> All the actual reactions are irreversible, exothermic and of the first order. <br><br> The nonlinear differential equations, describing material balances and energy balances, are formulated. After linearizing these equations around the existing stationary states, the matrices A, B, C, and D of the standard form for system representation are calculated. This is done for various combinations for input signals and output signals in each stationary state. <br><br> Considering the energy balance of the coolant, two different methods are used in this work. <br>I. Neglect of coolant dynamics; use of average temperature. <br>II. Introduction of a differential equation, describing the coolant dynamics. <br><br> This results in two main systems, model I and model II, for each reaction type. The models are studied parallely and differences are observed. <br><br> The graphical description of heat production and heat rejection is a useful mean in reactor studies and will therefore be thoroughly discussed. <br><br> Adaption of the system models to computer analysis is made. Two subroutines are written; CREMA1 for the single reaction, and CREMA2 for the consecutive and the parallel reactions. Main results from use of these subroutines are: stationary states, heat functions, and system matrices. This forms the foundation of further analysis, which is done by computer calculation at the Data Central of Lund. FORTRAN-programs are used and the computer is a CD3600. <br><br> Main points in the analysis and synthesis of the systems: <br>1. Discussion of stability; eigenvalues of the system matrix A. <br>2. Test of observability and controllability. <br>3. By transformation to observable canonical form (for observable systems), the transfer functions, for systems with one input and one output signal, is determined. <br>4. Reconstruction of state-variables; suitable here in regard to the known difficulty in measuring concentrations. <br>5. Synthesis of controllable systems by a state-variable feedback control in order to get a system having the wanted qualities.},
  author       = {Gustafsson, Bengt},
  issn         = {0346-5500},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {MSc Theses},
  title        = {Tankreaktorn - Analys och syntes av några olika kemiska reaktionssystem},
  year         = {1970},
}