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I dina spår - En kritisk granskning av det nya brottet olaga förföljelse

Liljegren, Zebastian LU (2016) LAGM01 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna uppsats genomförs en kritisk granskning av kriminaliseringen av olaga förföljelse som infördes i brottsbalken år 2011. Granskningen görs främst i förhållande till den straffrättsliga preventionsteorin, men även gentemot de kriterier för kriminalisering som formulerat i doktrin och förarbeten.

Straffrättssystemets syfte är främst att påverka medborgarna att avhålla sig från oönskade gärningar. Kriminaliseringen är tänkt att verka både allmän- och individualpreventivt. Kriminalisering är ett relativt lätt och billigt sätt att använda för att kontrollera och styra medborgarna. Den ska dock endast användas som en sista utväg och kriminalisera handlingar som kan orsaka skada på skyddsvärda intressen. Kriminalisering ska inte användas... (More)
I denna uppsats genomförs en kritisk granskning av kriminaliseringen av olaga förföljelse som infördes i brottsbalken år 2011. Granskningen görs främst i förhållande till den straffrättsliga preventionsteorin, men även gentemot de kriterier för kriminalisering som formulerat i doktrin och förarbeten.

Straffrättssystemets syfte är främst att påverka medborgarna att avhålla sig från oönskade gärningar. Kriminaliseringen är tänkt att verka både allmän- och individualpreventivt. Kriminalisering är ett relativt lätt och billigt sätt att använda för att kontrollera och styra medborgarna. Den ska dock endast användas som en sista utväg och kriminalisera handlingar som kan orsaka skada på skyddsvärda intressen. Kriminalisering ska inte användas bara för att visa att staten ser allvarligt på ett beteende.

De som stalkar är en annorlunda grupp jämfört med den typiska lagöverträdaren. De är äldre, har en högre utbildningsnivå och har ofta aldrig begått någon brottslighet tidigare. Stalkarna delas in i olika grupper utifrån motiv och tillvägagångssätt för förföljelsen. Den största delen av stalkarna utgörs av en före detta partner som vill återupprätta förhållandet eller bara hämnas på den som lämnat dem.

Den första anti-stalkningslagstiftningen infördes i Kalifornien år 1990 och har därefter spridits till många länder. Lagstiftningen har olika karaktär i olika länder och inriktar sig antingen på uppsåtet hos förövaren eller reaktionen hos offret. Även vad som utgör stalkning varierar i olika länder. En del länder har ett väldigt öppet hållet begrepp som ”trakasserier” medan andra länder mer preciserar vilka gärningar som är straffbara.

Brå konstaterade i en studie att nio procent av den svenska befolkningen kommer utsättas för eller har någon gång utsatts för oönskade kontakter. Införandet av brottet olaga förföljelse innebär att det är straffbart att förfölja någon genom brottsliga gärningar om de utgör led i en upprepad kränkning av personens integritet. Kriminaliseringen syftade till att upprepad brottslighet mot en och samma person i högre grad skulle bedömas i ett sammanhang och leda till strängare påföljder.

Uppsatsen tar även upp de förebyggande redskap mot stalkningsbeteenden som finns i och med möjligheten att utfärda kontaktförbud.

I uppsatsens analys diskuteras frågeställningarna främst ur ett preventionsperspektiv och alternativa lösningar på problemet med stalkning kommer presenteras och diskuteras. (Less)
Abstract
In this essay I conduct a critical review of the criminalisation of the crime ”illegal persecution” which was included in the Swedish penal code in 2011. The review is made first and foremost in the light of the criminal law theory of the criminal system as preemptive, bur also in the light of the criminalisation criteria which has been formulated both in the criminal doctrine, and in the legislative history.

The purpose of the criminal system is first and foremost to prevent the citizens from committing unwanted acts. The criminalisation is supposed to have both general and individual prevention effects. Criminalisation is a relatively easy and cheap way to control and guide the citizens. However, it should only be used as a last... (More)
In this essay I conduct a critical review of the criminalisation of the crime ”illegal persecution” which was included in the Swedish penal code in 2011. The review is made first and foremost in the light of the criminal law theory of the criminal system as preemptive, bur also in the light of the criminalisation criteria which has been formulated both in the criminal doctrine, and in the legislative history.

The purpose of the criminal system is first and foremost to prevent the citizens from committing unwanted acts. The criminalisation is supposed to have both general and individual prevention effects. Criminalisation is a relatively easy and cheap way to control and guide the citizens. However, it should only be used as a last resort and only acts that could cause harm to interests in society which need too be protected should be criminalised. The legislator should never use criminalisation as a way too show that they take a specific problem seriously.

Stalkers is a group that differ from the usual offender. They are older, have a higher level of education and have rarely committed any other offences previously. Stalkers can be separated into different groups defined by their motive and the course of action for their stalking. The majority of stalkers are made up of former spouses or partners that want to reestablish the relationship or just want to avenge the one that left them.

The first anti-stalking legislation was the Californian law which was registered in 1990 and has since spread to many countries. The anti-stalking legislation has taken on a different character in different countries. In some, the legislation puts up a demand of intent from the perpetrator and some are focused on the reaction of the victim. Some countries have chosen to criminalize ”harassment” to make sure no acts can go unpunished while other countries have chosen to define which acts are punishable as stalking.

The national council found that nine percent of the Swedish citizens will be, or have been, victims of unwanted contact. The registration of the crime illegal persecution means that it is now punishable to persecute someone by certain criminal acts if they constitute a frequent violation of the person's integrity. The criminalisation's aim is to consider repeated criminal acts against another person in a single context and lead to more severe punishment.

The essay also brings up the possibility to act preemptively against stalking behaviour by issuing restraining orders.
In the essay's analysis the questions formulated will be discussed first and foremost from a preemptive perspective and I will present and discuss alternative solutions to the problem of stalking. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Liljegren, Zebastian LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
In your footsteps - A critical review of the new crime illegal persecution
course
LAGM01 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Criminal law
language
Swedish
id
8851248
date added to LUP
2016-03-21 10:41:37
date last changed
2016-03-21 10:41:37
@misc{8851248,
  abstract     = {In this essay I conduct a critical review of the criminalisation of the crime ”illegal persecution” which was included in the Swedish penal code in 2011. The review is made first and foremost in the light of the criminal law theory of the criminal system as preemptive, bur also in the light of the criminalisation criteria which has been formulated both in the criminal doctrine, and in the legislative history.
 
The purpose of the criminal system is first and foremost to prevent the citizens from committing unwanted acts. The criminalisation is supposed to have both general and individual prevention effects. Criminalisation is a relatively easy and cheap way to control and guide the citizens. However, it should only be used as a last resort and only acts that could cause harm to interests in society which need too be protected should be criminalised. The legislator should never use criminalisation as a way too show that they take a specific problem seriously.
 
Stalkers is a group that differ from the usual offender. They are older, have a higher level of education and have rarely committed any other offences previously. Stalkers can be separated into different groups defined by their motive and the course of action for their stalking. The majority of stalkers are made up of former spouses or partners that want to reestablish the relationship or just want to avenge the one that left them.
 
The first anti-stalking legislation was the Californian law which was registered in 1990 and has since spread to many countries. The anti-stalking legislation has taken on a different character in different countries. In some, the legislation puts up a demand of intent from the perpetrator and some are focused on the reaction of the victim. Some countries have chosen to criminalize ”harassment” to make sure no acts can go unpunished while other countries have chosen to define which acts are punishable as stalking.
 
The national council found that nine percent of the Swedish citizens will be, or have been, victims of unwanted contact. The registration of the crime illegal persecution means that it is now punishable to persecute someone by certain criminal acts if they constitute a frequent violation of the person's integrity. The criminalisation's aim is to consider repeated criminal acts against another person in a single context and lead to more severe punishment.
 
The essay also brings up the possibility to act preemptively against stalking behaviour by issuing restraining orders.
In the essay's analysis the questions formulated will be discussed first and foremost from a preemptive perspective and I will present and discuss alternative solutions to the problem of stalking.},
  author       = {Liljegren, Zebastian},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {I dina spår - En kritisk granskning av det nya brottet olaga förföljelse},
  year         = {2016},
}