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EU-, Konkurrensrätten och Svensk Idrottsrörelse

Lind, Peter LU (2016) HARH12 20161
Department of Business Law
Abstract
Abstract: EU-law, the rules on Competition and movement of Sport
The popularity of athletics and particular football and the non-profit circumstances of movement of sport, generated great additional value to society and was therefore almost left without intervention from Swedish public law-system during the 20th century. Instead, since 1904, all Swedish football clubs and players are forced to follow the strictly hierarchy of monopoly of football associations and obey their rigorous ruling system, but however more actively subordinated by EU-law when Sweden became members of EU 1995. The highest law of EU consists of the Treaties of EU, the large extent of practice from EU-Courts and commonly developed principles of Justice. The EU-law... (More)
Abstract: EU-law, the rules on Competition and movement of Sport
The popularity of athletics and particular football and the non-profit circumstances of movement of sport, generated great additional value to society and was therefore almost left without intervention from Swedish public law-system during the 20th century. Instead, since 1904, all Swedish football clubs and players are forced to follow the strictly hierarchy of monopoly of football associations and obey their rigorous ruling system, but however more actively subordinated by EU-law when Sweden became members of EU 1995. The highest law of EU consists of the Treaties of EU, the large extent of practice from EU-Courts and commonly developed principles of Justice. The EU-law origins from an agreement of 1958, the EEC-treaty, with purpose to create a European free market spot without internal national borders where goods and services should be able to move freely within this free European market. It should be an area based on functional/efficient competition. The rules on Competition with purpose to prohibit agreements with restriction of competition or abuse of a dominant position, are yet today considered to be the hardcore of EU-law. When the purpose of football associations is monopoly and through their strict rules and hierarchy, the EU rules on Competition seem to be possibly applicable to area of athletics.
But there are other demands too, to fulfill the common criterias of rules on Competition. EU-Court has however in practice lowered those demands to be enough with just cross border economical relations which is only more than not significant. The rules on EU Competition are therefore possibly applicable to many circumstances of sports with only limited economical impact, strengthen by the fact that the economic dimension in football increased during the last decades.
The institutions of EU have however admitted the special character of sport and its [additional] value expressed in the recent treaty too. The EU-Court established in 2006 that rules of sport should be taken into account out of the special character of sports, and the circumstances and purposes, of relevance in the actual case. The court continued, that the test of exception from forbidden restriction of competition regarding rules of sport, therefore would be made possible out of only legitimated purpose of non-profit values of sport, however with strict demands of fulfilled principle of proportion. The test includes demands to show that the limitation of the rules of sport is a clear necessity to achieve legitimated purpose, in a reasonable and suitable way. This followed close to former practice of EU-Court within the area of sport, which has clarified that rules of sport and the actual use of those must fulfill other principles of Justice as well, like [structured] principal of equality. After the conviction 2006 the EU-court has claimed sport associations as part of breaking other rules on EC Competition Law too, including abuse of dominant position. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning: EU-, Konkurrensrätten och Svensk Idrottsrörelse
Idrottens och särskilt fotbollens popularitet och idrottsrörelsens ideella / icke-vinstdrivande förhållanden, idrottens särart, genererade stora samhällsvärden under 1900-talet och lämnades med marginell svensk rättsinblandning. Istället kom fotbollsföreningar och utövare att underordnas förbundsmonopol från 1904 med strikt [regel]hierarki, som med Sveriges EU-anslutning 1995 dock kom att underställas EU-rätten. Högsta EU-rätt, primärrätten, utgörs av fördrag, EU-domstolarnas omfattande rättspraxis samt härledda och genom praxis utvecklade allmänna rättsprinciper. EU-rätten har marknadsekonomiskt ursprung i 1958 års EEG-fördrag och europeisk tullunion med frihandelsområde... (More)
Sammanfattning: EU-, Konkurrensrätten och Svensk Idrottsrörelse
Idrottens och särskilt fotbollens popularitet och idrottsrörelsens ideella / icke-vinstdrivande förhållanden, idrottens särart, genererade stora samhällsvärden under 1900-talet och lämnades med marginell svensk rättsinblandning. Istället kom fotbollsföreningar och utövare att underordnas förbundsmonopol från 1904 med strikt [regel]hierarki, som med Sveriges EU-anslutning 1995 dock kom att underställas EU-rätten. Högsta EU-rätt, primärrätten, utgörs av fördrag, EU-domstolarnas omfattande rättspraxis samt härledda och genom praxis utvecklade allmänna rättsprinciper. EU-rätten har marknadsekonomiskt ursprung i 1958 års EEG-fördrag och europeisk tullunion med frihandelsområde utan inre gränser präglad av effektiv=fungerande konkurrens / tävlan där varor och tjänster ska kunna flöda fritt på EU-marknaden utan nationella gränshinder. Konkurrensreglerna med syfte att förbjuda konkurrensbegränsande avtal och missbruk av dominerande ställning utgör än idag EU-rättens hårda kärna. EU-rätten genomsyras av likabehandlingsprincip som utvidgats och på konkurrensområdet innebär att säkerställa likvärdiga spelregler, "fair-play", så att fri tävlan mellan aktörerna också blir rättvis, i linje med idrottsområdets bärande grundvärde. Förbundens syfte av idrottsmonopol och strikta [regel]hierarki tycks därtill göra EU:s konkurrensrätt möjligt tillämplig på idrottsområdet.
Men då krävs även uppfyllande av för konkurrensförbuden gemensamma ekonomiska kriterier på idrottens mer ideella förhållanden. EU-domstolen har i praxis emellertid urvattnat kriterierna till låga krav på gränsöverskridande ekonomiska relationer som ej är obetydliga. EU:s konkurrensregler är därigenom förmodat tillämpliga på många idrottsförhållanden även med begränsad ekonomisk dimension, som dessutom ökat inom idrotten över tid.
EU:s institutioner har erkänt och då även att ta hänsyn till idrottens särart och dess [mer]värden, som även tydliggjorts i nuvarande fördrag. EU-domstolen fastslog 2006 att idrottsregler vid prövning mot EU:s konkurrensregler i konkreta fallet ska tolkas utifrån sammanhang och syfte där idrottens särart beaktas. EU-domstolen fastställde så undantagsprövning av förbud mot konkurrensbegränsning med krav på att idrottsreglerna uppfyller rättsprincip, proportionalitetsprincipen, dvs med krav på rimlighet, lämplighet och tydlig nödvändighet för att uppnå legitimt syfte av ideella idrottsliga [mer]värden. Detta låg i linje med tidigare EU-rättslig praxis på idrottsområdet, som även fastslagit att idrottsregler och faktisk tillämpning av dessa därtill måste uppfylla andra allmänna rättsprinciper, som [strukturerad] likabehandling. Efter domen 2006 har EU-domstolen även funnit idrottsförbund bryta mot andra av EU:s konkurrensregler, däribland missbruk av dominerande ställning. (Less)
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author
Lind, Peter LU
supervisor
organization
course
HARH12 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
EU-rätt, Konkurrensrätt, Idrottsrörelse, Idrott, Fotboll
language
Swedish
id
8870625
date added to LUP
2016-04-06 14:09:53
date last changed
2016-04-06 14:09:53
@misc{8870625,
  abstract     = {Abstract: EU-law, the rules on Competition and movement of Sport
The popularity of athletics and particular football and the non-profit circumstances of movement of sport, generated great additional value to society and was therefore almost left without intervention from Swedish public law-system during the 20th century. Instead, since 1904, all Swedish football clubs and players are forced to follow the strictly hierarchy of monopoly of football associations and obey their rigorous ruling system, but however more actively subordinated by EU-law when Sweden became members of EU 1995. The highest law of EU consists of the Treaties of EU, the large extent of practice from EU-Courts and commonly developed principles of Justice. The EU-law origins from an agreement of 1958, the EEC-treaty, with purpose to create a European free market spot without internal national borders where goods and services should be able to move freely within this free European market. It should be an area based on functional/efficient competition. The rules on Competition with purpose to prohibit agreements with restriction of competition or abuse of a dominant position, are yet today considered to be the hardcore of EU-law. When the purpose of football associations is monopoly and through their strict rules and hierarchy, the EU rules on Competition seem to be possibly applicable to area of athletics.
But there are other demands too, to fulfill the common criterias of rules on Competition. EU-Court has however in practice lowered those demands to be enough with just cross border economical relations which is only more than not significant. The rules on EU Competition are therefore possibly applicable to many circumstances of sports with only limited economical impact, strengthen by the fact that the economic dimension in football increased during the last decades. 
The institutions of EU have however admitted the special character of sport and its [additional] value expressed in the recent treaty too. The EU-Court established in 2006 that rules of sport should be taken into account out of the special character of sports, and the circumstances and purposes, of relevance in the actual case. The court continued, that the test of exception from forbidden restriction of competition regarding rules of sport, therefore would be made possible out of only legitimated purpose of non-profit values of sport, however with strict demands of fulfilled principle of proportion. The test includes demands to show that the limitation of the rules of sport is a clear necessity to achieve legitimated purpose, in a reasonable and suitable way. This followed close to former practice of EU-Court within the area of sport, which has clarified that rules of sport and the actual use of those must fulfill other principles of Justice as well, like [structured] principal of equality. After the conviction 2006 the EU-court has claimed sport associations as part of breaking other rules on EC Competition Law too, including abuse of dominant position.},
  author       = {Lind, Peter},
  keyword      = {EU-rätt,Konkurrensrätt,Idrottsrörelse,Idrott,Fotboll},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {EU-, Konkurrensrätten och Svensk Idrottsrörelse},
  year         = {2016},
}