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Hit men inte längre - En granskning av EU:s gränshinder och staters förpliktelser att ge tillgång till ett asylförfarande

Nygren, Marie LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract
This thesis starts of in the increase of people seeking protection in Europe in the autumn 2015 and spring 2016 and on EU member states actions to handle this. These measures consist, inter alia, of closed borders, erecting barbed wire fences, the establishment of border controls and transit zones and implementation of rapid border procedures. The procedures have been criticized as contrary to the asylum legal framework, particularly to the central principle of non-refoulement and because the procedures result in that the individual's right to have its asylum applications examined in a fair way is undermined. The essay focuses on the conflict between a rights-based approach to migration and the states interest to control its borders, and... (More)
This thesis starts of in the increase of people seeking protection in Europe in the autumn 2015 and spring 2016 and on EU member states actions to handle this. These measures consist, inter alia, of closed borders, erecting barbed wire fences, the establishment of border controls and transit zones and implementation of rapid border procedures. The procedures have been criticized as contrary to the asylum legal framework, particularly to the central principle of non-refoulement and because the procedures result in that the individual's right to have its asylum applications examined in a fair way is undermined. The essay focuses on the conflict between a rights-based approach to migration and the states interest to control its borders, and therefore seeks to identify the EU member states obligations, both in international law and in EU law, to provide a protection seeker in the state's border area access to the asylum procedure and territory and also explores whether this responsibility differs between EU:s internal and external borders and whether measures taken in order to prevent people seeking international protection are allowed under the legal framework of asylum law in Europe.

The foundation is the international legal framework with the Refugee Convention, the ECHR and the principle of non-refoulement which EU law is largely based on and refer to. International law also constitutes a lower limit for the State requirements. International asylum law supports the existence of a right to seek asylum and EU law in turn contains a detailed system that regulates states far-reaching obligation to provide access to an asylum procedure. An explicit right to accessing the territory does not exist, neither in international law nor in EU law, but the states obligation under international law may although result in an obligation to admit protection seekers. In theory the obligation does not differ between the internal and external borders. But the design of the regulatory framework, mainly the Dublin regulation, may result in that the states by the external borders will be responsible for trying applications to a larger extent. Further, clashes occur between the asylum framework in international law and the EU framework as international law is based on a focus on the individual, while the EU legal asylum system is based on generalized concepts including safe third country concepts which could lead to dismissal of an application without a material assessment, which has been heavily criticized with the basis in the principle of non-refoulement. In the thesis it is concluded that EU law rules regarding access to the asylum procedure and territory may not live up to the obligations of the international legal framework for asylum. Furthermore, it raises the issue of whether secondary legislation in EU law is compatible with Article 18 of the EU charter of fundamental rights. The thesis also concludes that the value of the asylum legal framework is low for a protection seeker in the border area of a member state as long as the states do not comply with their obligations and the practical possibility to appeal are limited. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen tar avstamp i den ökning av människor som vill söka asyl i Europa som skett under hösten 2015 och våren 2016 och medlemsstaterna i EU:s åtgärder för att hantera detta. Dessa åtgärder består bland annat av stängda gränser, resande av taggtrådsstängsel, upprättande av gränskontroller och transitzoner och genomföranden av snabba gränsförfaranden. Förfarandena har kritiserats för att strida mot det asylrättsliga regelverket, framför allt mot den inom asylrätten centrala principen om non-refoulement och för att förfarandena underminerar individens rätt att få sin asylansökan undersökt på ett rättvist sätt. Uppsatsen fokuserar på konflikten mellan ett rättighetsbaserat förhållningssätt till migration och staters önskan att kontrollera... (More)
Uppsatsen tar avstamp i den ökning av människor som vill söka asyl i Europa som skett under hösten 2015 och våren 2016 och medlemsstaterna i EU:s åtgärder för att hantera detta. Dessa åtgärder består bland annat av stängda gränser, resande av taggtrådsstängsel, upprättande av gränskontroller och transitzoner och genomföranden av snabba gränsförfaranden. Förfarandena har kritiserats för att strida mot det asylrättsliga regelverket, framför allt mot den inom asylrätten centrala principen om non-refoulement och för att förfarandena underminerar individens rätt att få sin asylansökan undersökt på ett rättvist sätt. Uppsatsen fokuserar på konflikten mellan ett rättighetsbaserat förhållningssätt till migration och staters önskan att kontrollera sina gränser. Uppsatsen syftar därför till att kartlägga vilka förpliktelser som finns för medlemsstater i EU, både på folkrättslig och EU-rättslig nivå, att ge en skyddssökande person i statens gränsområde tillgång till asylförfarandet och territoriet och utforskar även huruvida detta ansvar skiljer sig mellan EU:s inre och yttre gränser och huruvida åtgärder som vidtas med syfte att hindra människor att söka internationellt skydd är tillåtna enligt det asylrättsliga regelverket i Europa.

I grunden ligger det folkrättsliga regelverket med flyktingkonventionen, EKMR och principen om non-refoulement som EU-rätten till stor del grundar sig på och hänvisar till. Folkrätten utgör också en nedre gräns för staters förpliktelser. Ur folkrätten finns stöd för existensen av en rätt att söka asyl och EU-rätten har i sin tur ett detaljerat system som reglerar staters långtgående förpliktelse att ge tillgång till ett asylförfarande. En uttalad rätt att få resa in på territoriet finns varken på folkrättslig eller EU-rättslig nivå men staters folkrättsliga förpliktelser kan medföra att stater trots allt är tvungna att bevilja inresa. Förpliktelserna skiljer sig i teorin inte mellan EU:s inre och yttre gränser. Dock leder regelverkens utformning, framför allt Dublinförordningen, till att staterna vid de yttre gränserna kan bli ansvariga för prövning av ansökningar i större utsträckning. Vidare uppstår också krockar mellan det folkrättsliga och EU-rättsliga regelverket då folkrätten bygger på ett fokus på individen medan det EU-rättsliga asylsystemet till stor stel grundar sig på generaliserade koncept bl.a. om säkra tredjeländer som kan medföra att en ansökan avvisas utan att prövas materiellt, något som blivit starkt kritiserat med grund i principen om non-refoulement. I uppsatsen dras slutsatsen att EU-rättens regler kring tillgång till asylförfarandet och territoriet inte lever upp till förpliktelserna i det folkrättsliga asylregelverket. Vidare lyfts frågan om den sekundärrättsliga EU-rätten på asylområdet är förenlig med artikel 18 i rättighetsstadgan. I uppsatsen dras slutsatsen att värdet av det asylrättsliga regelverket är lågt för en skyddssökande inom en medlemsstats gränsområde så länge stater inte följer sina förpliktelser och den praktiska möjligheten att överklaga är liten. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nygren, Marie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
This far but no further – A review of the EU´s border barriers and states obligations to provide access to an asylum procedure
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
migrationsrätt (migration law), folkrätt (en. public international law), asyl (asylum), flyktingar (refugees), ansökningsförfarande (asylum procedure), subsidiärt skyddsbehövande (subsidiary protection), gränser (borders)
language
Swedish
id
8873657
date added to LUP
2016-05-30 16:14:46
date last changed
2016-05-30 16:14:46
@misc{8873657,
  abstract     = {This thesis starts of in the increase of people seeking protection in Europe in the autumn 2015 and spring 2016 and on EU member states actions to handle this. These measures consist, inter alia, of closed borders, erecting barbed wire fences, the establishment of border controls and transit zones and implementation of rapid border procedures. The procedures have been criticized as contrary to the asylum legal framework, particularly to the central principle of non-refoulement and because the procedures result in that the individual's right to have its asylum applications examined in a fair way is undermined. The essay focuses on the conflict between a rights-based approach to migration and the states interest to control its borders, and therefore seeks to identify the EU member states obligations, both in international law and in EU law, to provide a protection seeker in the state's border area access to the asylum procedure and territory and also explores whether this responsibility differs between EU:s internal and external borders and whether measures taken in order to prevent people seeking international protection are allowed under the legal framework of asylum law in Europe. 

The foundation is the international legal framework with the Refugee Convention, the ECHR and the principle of non-refoulement which EU law is largely based on and refer to. International law also constitutes a lower limit for the State requirements. International asylum law supports the existence of a right to seek asylum and EU law in turn contains a detailed system that regulates states far-reaching obligation to provide access to an asylum procedure. An explicit right to accessing the territory does not exist, neither in international law nor in EU law, but the states obligation under international law may although result in an obligation to admit protection seekers. In theory the obligation does not differ between the internal and external borders. But the design of the regulatory framework, mainly the Dublin regulation, may result in that the states by the external borders will be responsible for trying applications to a larger extent. Further, clashes occur between the asylum framework in international law and the EU framework as international law is based on a focus on the individual, while the EU legal asylum system is based on generalized concepts including safe third country concepts which could lead to dismissal of an application without a material assessment, which has been heavily criticized with the basis in the principle of non-refoulement. In the thesis it is concluded that EU law rules regarding access to the asylum procedure and territory may not live up to the obligations of the international legal framework for asylum. Furthermore, it raises the issue of whether secondary legislation in EU law is compatible with Article 18 of the EU charter of fundamental rights. The thesis also concludes that the value of the asylum legal framework is low for a protection seeker in the border area of a member state as long as the states do not comply with their obligations and the practical possibility to appeal are limited.},
  author       = {Nygren, Marie},
  keyword      = {migrationsrätt (migration law),folkrätt (en. public international law),asyl (asylum),flyktingar (refugees),ansökningsförfarande (asylum procedure),subsidiärt skyddsbehövande (subsidiary protection),gränser (borders)},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hit men inte längre - En granskning av EU:s gränshinder och staters förpliktelser att ge tillgång till ett asylförfarande},
  year         = {2016},
}