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Vi gör vad vi vill? -En studie om staters erkännande av Kosovo och Krim

Olsson, Hampus LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det här examenarbetet behandlar den folkrättsliga disciplinen erkännande av stater. Inom det valda ämnesområdet undersöks staters argumentation för att erkänna respektive icke-erkänna en entitet som stat. Undersökningen avgränsas till att granska argumentationen i förhållande till två utvalda fall, Kosovo och Krim. Syftet för det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur staters erkännande respektive icke-erkännande av Kosovo och Krim i samband med deras självständighetsförklaringar förhållit sig till det rättsliga ramverket om statserkännande.
De grundläggande förutsättningarna som krävs att en entitet ska uppfylla för att utgöra en stat återfinns in Montevideokonventionen från 1933. Baskriterierna innefattar att entiteten har en... (More)
Det här examenarbetet behandlar den folkrättsliga disciplinen erkännande av stater. Inom det valda ämnesområdet undersöks staters argumentation för att erkänna respektive icke-erkänna en entitet som stat. Undersökningen avgränsas till att granska argumentationen i förhållande till två utvalda fall, Kosovo och Krim. Syftet för det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur staters erkännande respektive icke-erkännande av Kosovo och Krim i samband med deras självständighetsförklaringar förhållit sig till det rättsliga ramverket om statserkännande.
De grundläggande förutsättningarna som krävs att en entitet ska uppfylla för att utgöra en stat återfinns in Montevideokonventionen från 1933. Baskriterierna innefattar att entiteten har en permanent befolkning, ett definierat territorium, ett styre som utövar effektiv kontroll över befolkningen och territoriet samt en förmåga att upprätthålla mellanstatliga relationer. Utöver dessa krav skall även entiteten uppvisa självständighet i förhållande till andra stater. Staternas kompetens att erkänna en annan entitet är knuten till staternas likställda suveränitet inom folkrätten. Ingen stat kan tvinga en annan stat att erkänna en entitet som stat. I vissa fall kan ett erkännande av en entitet strida mot folkrätten om erkännandet lämnas då entiteten ej uppfyller kriterierna ovan.
Staters erkännande argumentation har samlats in i form av erkännande brev, uttalanden i media samt mötesprotokoll från olika forum i FN. Mot bakgrund av de insamlande yttranden och uttalanden blir uppsatsens konkluderande slutsats blir att staters erkännanden och argumentationen till lämnande eller tillbakahållande av erkännande av Krim respektive Kosovo präglas av politisk ambivalens. Stater kan ha en rättsuppfattning i ett fall och en helt annan i nästa. Den argumentation som åberopas är till största delen av arten politisk men det förekommer även hänvisningar till det rättsliga ramverket för erkännande. Noterats har att beroende på vilket forum argumentation om erkännande förekommer lämnas mer eller mindre utförliga förklaringar till ett ställningstagande för eller emot erkännande. Staternas starka ställning särskilt de fem permanent medlemmarna av Säkerhetsrådet gör att staterna inte behöver motivera sina beslut att erkänna en annan entitet som stat, vilket heller inte görs åtminstone inte i förhållande till det rättsliga ramverket för erkännande. Så länge som staterna har ett egenintresse vid erkännande av en entitet som stat kommer de även i framtiden vara övervägande politiska. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis will examine the topic of state recognition in public international law. More precisely investigate states reasoning and argumentation concerning the choice whether to recognize or not recognize an entity as a state. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how state´s recognition and non-recognition of Kosovo and Crimea regarding their declarations of independence, correspond to the legal framework of state recognition.
The foundations of what legal criteria an entity has to meet in order to become a state is put forward in the 1933 Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States. The prerequisites that an entity must meet order to achieve statehood are a permanent population, a defined territory, a government that... (More)
This thesis will examine the topic of state recognition in public international law. More precisely investigate states reasoning and argumentation concerning the choice whether to recognize or not recognize an entity as a state. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how state´s recognition and non-recognition of Kosovo and Crimea regarding their declarations of independence, correspond to the legal framework of state recognition.
The foundations of what legal criteria an entity has to meet in order to become a state is put forward in the 1933 Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States. The prerequisites that an entity must meet order to achieve statehood are a permanent population, a defined territory, a government that exercises control over aforesaid population and territory, last but not least the entity must be able to enter and uphold relations with other states. Regardless of these criteria an entity that claims statehood need to show independence in relation to other states. The principle of states sovereign equality in international law includes the competence for the state to decide if and when it chooses to recognize another entity as a state. No state can legally coerce another state to recognize an entity as a state. In certain cases recognition can violate the norms of international law. Premature recognition is such a case, it occurs when an entity does not fulfil the criteria stated above and yet recognition is given.
The states argumentation has been gathered in different forms, letters of recognition, press releases, statements in the media and statements in the United Nations have been collected. Upon evaluation this thesis concludes that the arguments put forward by states as a basis for recognition or non-recognition in the cases of Kosovo and Crimea, is characterized by political ambiguity. States may have an opinion of what the applicable law is in one case and a totally different opinion in the next case. The reasoning provided by states for their actions are mostly political but in some instances states refer to the legal framework regulating recognition. The author has noted that the reasoning and referring to the legal framework is dependent on which forum the state makes its case. The States prominent position in international law, especially the permanent members of the Security Council, does not require states to give grounds for their decision to recognize an entity as a state. The reasons states provide for their actions does not refer to the legal framework on recognition as much as political considerations, and will continue to do so as long as states have a self-interest in recognition. (Less)
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author
Olsson, Hampus LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
We do what we want? – A study on State recognition of Kosovo and Crimea
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Folkrätt, Public International Law
language
Swedish
id
8873677
date added to LUP
2016-06-03 09:41:54
date last changed
2016-06-03 09:41:54
@misc{8873677,
  abstract     = {This thesis will examine the topic of state recognition in public international law. More precisely investigate states reasoning and argumentation concerning the choice whether to recognize or not recognize an entity as a state. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how state´s recognition and non-recognition of Kosovo and Crimea regarding their declarations of independence, correspond to the legal framework of state recognition. 
The foundations of what legal criteria an entity has to meet in order to become a state is put forward in the 1933 Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States. The prerequisites that an entity must meet order to achieve statehood are a permanent population, a defined territory, a government that exercises control over aforesaid population and territory, last but not least the entity must be able to enter and uphold relations with other states. Regardless of these criteria an entity that claims statehood need to show independence in relation to other states. The principle of states sovereign equality in international law includes the competence for the state to decide if and when it chooses to recognize another entity as a state. No state can legally coerce another state to recognize an entity as a state. In certain cases recognition can violate the norms of international law. Premature recognition is such a case, it occurs when an entity does not fulfil the criteria stated above and yet recognition is given. 
The states argumentation has been gathered in different forms, letters of recognition, press releases, statements in the media and statements in the United Nations have been collected. Upon evaluation this thesis concludes that the arguments put forward by states as a basis for recognition or non-recognition in the cases of Kosovo and Crimea, is characterized by political ambiguity. States may have an opinion of what the applicable law is in one case and a totally different opinion in the next case. The reasoning provided by states for their actions are mostly political but in some instances states refer to the legal framework regulating recognition. The author has noted that the reasoning and referring to the legal framework is dependent on which forum the state makes its case. The States prominent position in international law, especially the permanent members of the Security Council, does not require states to give grounds for their decision to recognize an entity as a state. The reasons states provide for their actions does not refer to the legal framework on recognition as much as political considerations, and will continue to do so as long as states have a self-interest in recognition.},
  author       = {Olsson, Hampus},
  keyword      = {Folkrätt,Public International Law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vi gör vad vi vill? -En studie om staters erkännande av Kosovo och Krim},
  year         = {2016},
}