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Integrationsklausulens interaktion med svensk civilprocessrätt: integration eller missanpassning?

Ashir, Rida LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka integrationsklausulen utifrån ett svenskt civilprocessrättsligt perspektiv. En integrationsklausul syftar till att visa att det skriftliga avtalsdokumentet utgör avtalsparternas fullständiga avtalsförhållande. Således ska det skriftliga avtalet ersätta alla tidigare förhandlingar, diskussioner och andra sådana prekontraktuella mellanhavanden som förekommit innan upprättandet och undertecknandet av det skriftliga avtalet. Således anses en integrationsklausul medföra förutsebarhet för avtalsparterna.

I de angloamerikanska rättsordningarna är integrationsklausulen accessorisk till the parol evidence rule i meningen att en integrationsklausul i ett avtal visar på parternas vilja att the parol... (More)
Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka integrationsklausulen utifrån ett svenskt civilprocessrättsligt perspektiv. En integrationsklausul syftar till att visa att det skriftliga avtalsdokumentet utgör avtalsparternas fullständiga avtalsförhållande. Således ska det skriftliga avtalet ersätta alla tidigare förhandlingar, diskussioner och andra sådana prekontraktuella mellanhavanden som förekommit innan upprättandet och undertecknandet av det skriftliga avtalet. Således anses en integrationsklausul medföra förutsebarhet för avtalsparterna.

I de angloamerikanska rättsordningarna är integrationsklausulen accessorisk till the parol evidence rule i meningen att en integrationsklausul i ett avtal visar på parternas vilja att the parol evidence rule ska tillämpas. Enligt the parol evidence rule ska extern bevisning som syftar till att tillägga, ändra eller motsäga det skriftliga avtalet uteslutas. Den utbredda användningen av integrationsklausuler i kommersiella avtal i de Angloamerikanska rättsordningarna beror på att klausultypen har en institutionell plats i rättsordningarna genom the parol evidence rule.

Integrationsklausuler är numera vanligt förekommande i svenska kommersiella avtal. Till skillnad från de Angloamerikanska rättsordningarna saknar svensk rätt en motsvarighet till the parol evidence rule. Tvärtom är en grundläggande civilprocessrättslig princip i svensk rätt den om fri bevisföring enligt vilken parterna i princip har rätt att inför domstol åberopa all den bevisning de önskar, oavsett karaktär. En annan grundläggande princip är processuella avtals ogiltighet utan stöd i lag. Av dessa anledningar synes den legala effekten som avtalsparterna försöker åstadkomma genom en integrationsklausul inte vara åtkomlig. Ett undantag kan vara att en integrationsklausul tillåts påverka domstolens bevisvärdering genom att det som förekommit i det prekontraktuella stadiet tillmäts ett lägre bevisvärde i förhållande till vad som framgår av det skriftliga avtalet. Att så kan bli fallet beror på bevisvärderingens karaktär som obunden av legala normer om hur bevisvärderingen ska ske.

I uppsatsen har också diskuterats hur parterna kan konstruera integrationsklausulen i syfte att åstadkomma dess tänkta effekt utan att strida mot de ovannämnda principerna i svensk civilprocessrätt. Ett sätt erbjuder s.k letter of intent (sv. avsiktsförklaring). I en avsiktsförklaring kan parterna klargöra sin intention att det som förekommit innan upprättandet och undertecknandet av det skriftliga avtalet inte ska medföra civilrättsliga rättigheter och skyldigheter och inte heller ska ha en inverkan på det skriftliga avtalet. En annan möjlighet är att sanktionera integrationsklausulen genom en vitesklausul enligt vilken parts agerande i strid med integrationsklausulen utlöser en rätt för motparten att utfå ett på förhand fixerat belopp. En sådan vitesklausul kan medföra en avhållande effekt på den part som trots integrationsklausulen ämnar åberopa utesluten bevisning inför domstol. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the integration clause from a Swedish civil procedural perspective. An integration clause is typically intended to show that the written contract is the entire agreement between the contracting parties. It thus supersedes all agreements, discussions and other such pre-contractual dealings that were undertaken before the establishment and signing of the written contract document. The integration clause is primarily thought of as bringing contractual certainty to the contracting parties.

In the Anglo-American legal systems, the integration clause is auxiliary to the parol evidence rule in the sense that the inclusion of an integration clause in a contract marks the contracting parties’ intention... (More)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the integration clause from a Swedish civil procedural perspective. An integration clause is typically intended to show that the written contract is the entire agreement between the contracting parties. It thus supersedes all agreements, discussions and other such pre-contractual dealings that were undertaken before the establishment and signing of the written contract document. The integration clause is primarily thought of as bringing contractual certainty to the contracting parties.

In the Anglo-American legal systems, the integration clause is auxiliary to the parol evidence rule in the sense that the inclusion of an integration clause in a contract marks the contracting parties’ intention that the parol evidence rule shall have effect. The parol evidence rule in turn excludes external evidence that intends to add, modify or contradict the written document. Thus, the common use of integration clauses in commercial contracts in the Anglo-American legal systems could be explained by the institutional place the clause enjoys through the parol evidence rule.

Integration clauses have become common in Swedish commercial contracts. But unlike the Anglo-American legal systems, the Swedish legal system lacks the equivalent to the parol evidence rule. On the contrary, one fundamental principle of Swedish procedural law is that the parties have the right to freely bring any evidence they deem necessary before the court. Another established principle is that contracting parties cannot dispose of procedural issues without legal basis. Therefore, it is apparent that the legal effect which the parties intend to bring about through the use of an integration clause clashes with fundamental principles in Swedish procedural law and is therefore not accessible. An exception may be that the integration clause can have an effect on the courts evaluation of evidence in the sense that the pre-contractual elements are awarded a lower value as evidence relative to the written contract document. That this could be the case depends on the fact that the courts evaluation of evidence is free and not bound by legal norms on how to evaluate evidence.

The paper also set out to discuss different ways to construct the integration clause in order to give it the legal effect the parties intended it to have without clashing with the abovementioned principles in Swedish procedural law. One possibility is offered by the use of letters of intent. In a letter of intent the parties can declare their intention that their pre-contractual dealings, before the establishment and signing of the written contract document, shall not give rise to contractual rights and duties and shall not have an impact on the rights and duties that arise from the written contract. Another possibility is using a liquidated damages clause according to which a contractor has the right to collect compensation from the other contractor upon a breach of the integration clause. Such a clause could have a preventive effect on a contractor who intends to breach the integration clause by bringing excluded evidence before the court. (Less)
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author
Ashir, Rida LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Integration clause and its interaction with Swedish civil procedural law: integration or misadjustment?
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
LAW, CIVIL PRODECURE, Processrätt, civilprocessrätt, integrationsklausuler
language
Swedish
id
8873736
date added to LUP
2016-06-17 14:31:13
date last changed
2016-06-17 14:31:13
@misc{8873736,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this paper is to analyze the integration clause from a Swedish civil procedural perspective. An integration clause is typically intended to show that the written contract is the entire agreement between the contracting parties. It thus supersedes all agreements, discussions and other such pre-contractual dealings that were undertaken before the establishment and signing of the written contract document. The integration clause is primarily thought of as bringing contractual certainty to the contracting parties. 

In the Anglo-American legal systems, the integration clause is auxiliary to the parol evidence rule in the sense that the inclusion of an integration clause in a contract marks the contracting parties’ intention that the parol evidence rule shall have effect. The parol evidence rule in turn excludes external evidence that intends to add, modify or contradict the written document. Thus, the common use of integration clauses in commercial contracts in the Anglo-American legal systems could be explained by the institutional place the clause enjoys through the parol evidence rule. 

Integration clauses have become common in Swedish commercial contracts. But unlike the Anglo-American legal systems, the Swedish legal system lacks the equivalent to the parol evidence rule. On the contrary, one fundamental principle of Swedish procedural law is that the parties have the right to freely bring any evidence they deem necessary before the court. Another established principle is that contracting parties cannot dispose of procedural issues without legal basis. Therefore, it is apparent that the legal effect which the parties intend to bring about through the use of an integration clause clashes with fundamental principles in Swedish procedural law and is therefore not accessible. An exception may be that the integration clause can have an effect on the courts evaluation of evidence in the sense that the pre-contractual elements are awarded a lower value as evidence relative to the written contract document. That this could be the case depends on the fact that the courts evaluation of evidence is free and not bound by legal norms on how to evaluate evidence. 

The paper also set out to discuss different ways to construct the integration clause in order to give it the legal effect the parties intended it to have without clashing with the abovementioned principles in Swedish procedural law. One possibility is offered by the use of letters of intent. In a letter of intent the parties can declare their intention that their pre-contractual dealings, before the establishment and signing of the written contract document, shall not give rise to contractual rights and duties and shall not have an impact on the rights and duties that arise from the written contract. Another possibility is using a liquidated damages clause according to which a contractor has the right to collect compensation from the other contractor upon a breach of the integration clause. Such a clause could have a preventive effect on a contractor who intends to breach the integration clause by bringing excluded evidence before the court.},
  author       = {Ashir, Rida},
  keyword      = {LAW,CIVIL PRODECURE,Processrätt,civilprocessrätt,integrationsklausuler},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Integrationsklausulens interaktion med svensk civilprocessrätt: integration eller missanpassning?},
  year         = {2016},
}