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Barn och reklam i en digital värld – Om barns marknadsrättsliga skydd på internet

Johnsson, Anna LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
In Sweden it is permitted to aim Internet commercials at children of all ages. However, when it comes to television, mail and e-mail there are certain bans on child commercials. The difference can be difficult to comprehend since Internet commercials frequently are embedded in non-commercial material and since the children now grow up in a digital world. The question formulation of this essay is if there should be a prohibition on commercials aimed at children on the Internet. The objective is to examine the interests in favor of and against this.

During the past decades, the Swedish market law has evolved from self- regulation by the business-sector to legislation influenced by EU law. The EU has through a full harmonization directive... (More)
In Sweden it is permitted to aim Internet commercials at children of all ages. However, when it comes to television, mail and e-mail there are certain bans on child commercials. The difference can be difficult to comprehend since Internet commercials frequently are embedded in non-commercial material and since the children now grow up in a digital world. The question formulation of this essay is if there should be a prohibition on commercials aimed at children on the Internet. The objective is to examine the interests in favor of and against this.

During the past decades, the Swedish market law has evolved from self- regulation by the business-sector to legislation influenced by EU law. The EU has through a full harmonization directive limited the member states’ opportunity to decide the strength of their regulation concerning consumers’ rights. Although Sweden has been able to navigate around this by claiming that the ban on children TV-commercials fall outside of the scope of the directive, the geographical range of the ban has been limited due to the country-of-origin principle of the EU. When it comes to economic activities on-line, the Swedish Market Court has so far considered that the country-of- effect principle applies, despite the fact that e-handelslagen (which implemented the directive on electronic commerce) prescribes the country- of-origin principle.

Furthermore, the freedom of expression limits the extent of market law interventions to pure commercial expressions. It has also been established that general prohibitions on commercials possibly require explicit provisions in constitutional law. Nevertheless, there is still a risk that a prohibition would breach the freedom of expression according to the children’s rights convention if it cannot be proven that the commercials harm the child’s well being or that a prohibition would be in accordance with the best interest of the child. However, such a motivation would be possible if the commercial endangers the health of the child, the child’s relationship to its parents, relatives or friends, or their opportunity to grow up into perceptive consumers.

The interest of protecting children in combination with the fact that Internet commercials can be difficult to identify, advocates a ban on children commercials on-line. However, a prohibition runs the risk of being ineffective due to conflicts with the freedom of expression, the freedom of information and the freedom of movement within the EU. If a prohibition were to be imposed, it is important that the motivation allows it to avoid profound restriction by the above-mentioned interests. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
På internet är det tillåtet att rikta reklam till barn i alla åldrar. För tv, post och e-post finns det däremot särskilda barnreklamförbud. Denna skillnad kan te sig märklig då internetreklam ofta är inbäddad i icke-kommersiellt material och då dagens barn växer upp i en digital värld. Frågeställningen i denna uppsats är om det bör införas en form av barnreklamförbud även på internet. Syftet är att undersöka vilka intressen som talar för och emot detta.

Marknadsrätten i Sverige har under de senaste decennierna utvecklats från att utgöras av näringslivets egna upprättade normer till att bestå av lagar anpassade till EU-rätten. EU har genom fullharmoniseringsdirektiv begränsat medlemsländernas möjligheter att själva bestämma styrkan av... (More)
På internet är det tillåtet att rikta reklam till barn i alla åldrar. För tv, post och e-post finns det däremot särskilda barnreklamförbud. Denna skillnad kan te sig märklig då internetreklam ofta är inbäddad i icke-kommersiellt material och då dagens barn växer upp i en digital värld. Frågeställningen i denna uppsats är om det bör införas en form av barnreklamförbud även på internet. Syftet är att undersöka vilka intressen som talar för och emot detta.

Marknadsrätten i Sverige har under de senaste decennierna utvecklats från att utgöras av näringslivets egna upprättade normer till att bestå av lagar anpassade till EU-rätten. EU har genom fullharmoniseringsdirektiv begränsat medlemsländernas möjligheter att själva bestämma styrkan av sina konsumentskyddsregler. Sverige har visserligen kommit runt direktivet genom att argumentera för att barnreklamförbudet för tv faller utanför direktivets tillämpningsområde, men förbudets geografiska räckvidd är likväl inskränkt p.g.a. den EU-rättsliga ursprungslandsprincipen. Vad gäller näringsverksamhet på internet har MD hittills ansett att effektlandsprincipen enligt MFL ska gälla trots att e-handelslagen (som genomfört e- handelsdirektivet) föreskriver en ursprungslandsprincip.

Yttrandefriheten begränsar marknadsrättsliga ingripanden till att endast gälla rent kommersiella meddelanden. För generella reklamförbud har det visats att det kan behövas uttryckliga medgivande i grundlagen. Dessutom riskerar ett förbud att strida mot informationsfriheten enligt barnkonventionen om det inte kan visas att reklamen skadar barnets välfärd eller att förbudet vore i enlighet med barnets bästa. En sådan motivering skulle förvisso kunna vara möjlig ifall reklamen riskerar barns hälsa, deras förhållande till föräldrar, släkt eller vänner eller deras möjligheter att växa upp till insiktsfulla konsumenter.

Intresset av att skydda barn i kombination med att internetreklam kan vara särskilt svår att identifiera talar för ett barnreklamförbud på internet. Ett sådant förbud riskerar dock att bli ineffektivt p.g.a. konflikter med yttrandefriheten, informationsfriheten och den fria rörligheten inom EU. Om ett förbud ska införas är det därför viktigt att det motiveras på ett sådant sätt att det undgår alltför långtgående inskränkningar av de ovannämnda intressena. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Johnsson, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
civilrätt, marknadsrätt, reklam, barn, internet
language
Swedish
id
8873977
date added to LUP
2016-07-04 08:36:42
date last changed
2016-07-04 08:36:42
@misc{8873977,
  abstract     = {In Sweden it is permitted to aim Internet commercials at children of all ages. However, when it comes to television, mail and e-mail there are certain bans on child commercials. The difference can be difficult to comprehend since Internet commercials frequently are embedded in non-commercial material and since the children now grow up in a digital world. The question formulation of this essay is if there should be a prohibition on commercials aimed at children on the Internet. The objective is to examine the interests in favor of and against this.

During the past decades, the Swedish market law has evolved from self- regulation by the business-sector to legislation influenced by EU law. The EU has through a full harmonization directive limited the member states’ opportunity to decide the strength of their regulation concerning consumers’ rights. Although Sweden has been able to navigate around this by claiming that the ban on children TV-commercials fall outside of the scope of the directive, the geographical range of the ban has been limited due to the country-of-origin principle of the EU. When it comes to economic activities on-line, the Swedish Market Court has so far considered that the country-of- effect principle applies, despite the fact that e-handelslagen (which implemented the directive on electronic commerce) prescribes the country- of-origin principle.

Furthermore, the freedom of expression limits the extent of market law interventions to pure commercial expressions. It has also been established that general prohibitions on commercials possibly require explicit provisions in constitutional law. Nevertheless, there is still a risk that a prohibition would breach the freedom of expression according to the children’s rights convention if it cannot be proven that the commercials harm the child’s well being or that a prohibition would be in accordance with the best interest of the child. However, such a motivation would be possible if the commercial endangers the health of the child, the child’s relationship to its parents, relatives or friends, or their opportunity to grow up into perceptive consumers.

The interest of protecting children in combination with the fact that Internet commercials can be difficult to identify, advocates a ban on children commercials on-line. However, a prohibition runs the risk of being ineffective due to conflicts with the freedom of expression, the freedom of information and the freedom of movement within the EU. If a prohibition were to be imposed, it is important that the motivation allows it to avoid profound restriction by the above-mentioned interests.},
  author       = {Johnsson, Anna},
  keyword      = {civilrätt,marknadsrätt,reklam,barn,internet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barn och reklam i en digital värld – Om barns marknadsrättsliga skydd på internet},
  year         = {2016},
}