Advanced

Partnervåldets normativa ramar - en queerteoretisk granskning av diskurser inom straffrätten

Bogren, Elin LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I Sverige har våld i nära relationer de senaste decennierna varit en högt prioriterad fråga, såväl politiskt som straffrättsligt. Partnervåld, och i synnerhet mäns våld mot kvinnor, har ansetts vara ett av de största hindren mot ett jämställt samhället. Det första straffrättsliga krafttaget för att motverka partnervåld gjordes i slutet på 1990-talet i samband med instiftandet av brottet grov kvinnofridskränkning. För att markera allvaret i detta brott samt att belysa att det främst är kvinnor som utsätts, utformades brottet könsspecifikt. Det infördes samtidigt ett stycke som reglerar våld i nära relationer i övriga fall, det vill säga då det inte utförs av en man mot en kvinna. Denna reglering rubricerades som grov fridskränkning.... (More)
I Sverige har våld i nära relationer de senaste decennierna varit en högt prioriterad fråga, såväl politiskt som straffrättsligt. Partnervåld, och i synnerhet mäns våld mot kvinnor, har ansetts vara ett av de största hindren mot ett jämställt samhället. Det första straffrättsliga krafttaget för att motverka partnervåld gjordes i slutet på 1990-talet i samband med instiftandet av brottet grov kvinnofridskränkning. För att markera allvaret i detta brott samt att belysa att det främst är kvinnor som utsätts, utformades brottet könsspecifikt. Det infördes samtidigt ett stycke som reglerar våld i nära relationer i övriga fall, det vill säga då det inte utförs av en man mot en kvinna. Denna reglering rubricerades som grov fridskränkning. Fridskränkningsbrottens utformning samt bilden av partnervåld som fenomen antyder en underliggande förståelse om att detta våld främst drabbar heterosexuella kvinnor. Forskning om våld i samkönade relationer har dock visat att problemet är lika utbrett i samkönade partnerförhållanden. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur partnervåld definieras i den straffrättsliga kontexten, samt att ifrågasätta vilka diskurser som präglar denna förståelse. Det är således i huvudsak rättsligt material som undersöks, och diskurserna identifieras utifrån ett queerteoretiskt angreppssätt. En utgångspunkt är att straffrätten som system påverkas av normativa föreställningar som råder i samhället, men även att straffrätten i sig bidrar till att producera moraliska samhällsnormer.

Den samhällsvetenskapliga förståelsen har haft en avgörande roll för den straffrättsliga hanteringen av partnervåld. Det var först när mäns våld mot kvinnor formulerades som en politisk jämställdhetsfråga som åtgärder på det straffrättsliga området ansågs vara motiverade. Det samkönade partnervåldet har inte berörts i lika stor utsträckning, vilket har lett till att detta våld osynliggjorts i forskningen. När den straffrättsliga problemformuleringen av partnervåld utformats har detta till stor del skett utifrån de samhällsvetenskapliga förklaringsmodeller och forskning. Således saknas det både samhällsvetenskapligt och straffrättsligt en kunskap och förståelse om våld i samkönade relationer.

Diskurserna som kan spåras i den straffrättsliga hanteringen av partnervåld i allmänhet, och våld i samkönade relationer i synnerhet, visar att de heteronormativa föreställningarna om partnervåld präglar den straffrättsliga förståelsen och definitionen av partnervåld. Våld i samkönade relationer omnämns i de rättsliga texterna antingen inte alls eller endast i anslutning till mäns våld mot kvinnor, och framställs då ofta som ett mindre betydande undantag. Konstruktionen av närståendebegreppet samt skyddssubjekt, som är centrala för denna lagstiftning, sker också ur en heteronormativ utgångspunkt. Ett vanligt sätt att rättsligt och politiskt hantera samkönat partnervåld är att referera till det som ett kunskapsproblem, och därmed skjuta problemlösningen mot framtiden. Osynliggörandet av det samkönade partnervåldet riskerar dock att bidra till ytterligare marginalisering av personer som bryter mot den heteronormativa strukturen. (Less)
Abstract
In Sweden, domestic violence has during recent decades been a high priority issue, both politically and in criminal law. Domestic abuse in relationships, and particularly men's violence against women, has been considered as one of the biggest obstacles to reach gender equality. The most significant measure in criminal law reguarding this issue was done in the late 1990s, when the legislation Gross violation of a woman’s integrity was founded. To emphasize the seriousness of this crime, and to highlight that it is mainly women who suffer from this particular type of systematic violence, the crime was enuciated as a gender-specific one. A second part of the legislation was headlined as Gross violation of integrity. This section is to be... (More)
In Sweden, domestic violence has during recent decades been a high priority issue, both politically and in criminal law. Domestic abuse in relationships, and particularly men's violence against women, has been considered as one of the biggest obstacles to reach gender equality. The most significant measure in criminal law reguarding this issue was done in the late 1990s, when the legislation Gross violation of a woman’s integrity was founded. To emphasize the seriousness of this crime, and to highlight that it is mainly women who suffer from this particular type of systematic violence, the crime was enuciated as a gender-specific one. A second part of the legislation was headlined as Gross violation of integrity. This section is to be applied on situations when violence is inflicted by a person to whom the victim has a close relationship. The legislation on domestic violence and the general attitude towards domestic abuse in close relationships as a social phenomenon, suggests an underlying understanding that this violence more or less only occurs in heterosexual relationships. Although, research on violence in same-sex relationships has shown that same-sex domestic abuse is a widespread issue in the LHBTQ-community. This paper seeks to examine how domestic violence is defined in the criminal context, and to query the discourses that characterizes this understanding. The discourses are identified from the legal texts and are critically reviewed from a queer theory-perspective. One primal assumption is that the criminal legal system is influenced by normative beliefs that prevail in society, but also the legal system in itself contributes to establish moral social codes.

Social science studies on domestic violence has had a decisive role in the criminal handling of this type of crimes. It was not until men's violence against women was drafted as a political social issue as measures of criminal law were considered justified. Same-sex domestic violence though has not been given the same amount of attention in social studies, which has led to the invisibility of this issue. The definition of domestic violence in the Penal Code and in general criminal law has largely been based on the models and research made by social science. Therefore, both social science and criminal law are in lack of knowledge and appreciation reguarding violence in same-sex relationships.

The discourses that according to this paper can be traced in the legal understandings of domestic violence in general and violence in same-sex relationships in particular, proves that heteronormative conceptions of domestic violence are prominent. The discoursive ways that violence in same-sex relationships are addressed in legal contexts are either not at all, or only as a less important exeption to men's violence against women. Constituent elements, such as close relationships and which group of people that primarily are to be protected by the law, are constructed from a heteronormative approach. Same-sex domestic violence is often refered to as an issue due to ignorance, that can not properly be dealt with until more knowledge is available. Such descriptions runs the risk of contributing to further marginalization of people who are challenging the heteronormative structures. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bogren, Elin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The normative framework of domestic violence - a discourse analysis of criminal law in a queer theory perspective
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law, partnervåld, domestic violence, samkönat partnervåld, same-sex relationships, diskurs, heteronormativitet, queerteori
language
Swedish
id
8874069
date added to LUP
2016-06-10 14:14:19
date last changed
2016-06-10 14:14:19
@misc{8874069,
  abstract     = {In Sweden, domestic violence has during recent decades been a high priority issue, both politically and in criminal law. Domestic abuse in relationships, and particularly men's violence against women, has been considered as one of the biggest obstacles to reach gender equality. The most significant measure in criminal law reguarding this issue was done in the late 1990s, when the legislation Gross violation of a woman’s integrity was founded. To emphasize the seriousness of this crime, and to highlight that it is mainly women who suffer from this particular type of systematic violence, the crime was enuciated as a gender-specific one. A second part of the legislation was headlined as Gross violation of integrity. This section is to be applied on situations when violence is inflicted by a person to whom the victim has a close relationship. The legislation on domestic violence and the general attitude towards domestic abuse in close relationships as a social phenomenon, suggests an underlying understanding that this violence more or less only occurs in heterosexual relationships. Although, research on violence in same-sex relationships has shown that same-sex domestic abuse is a widespread issue in the LHBTQ-community. This paper seeks to examine how domestic violence is defined in the criminal context, and to query the discourses that characterizes this understanding. The discourses are identified from the legal texts and are critically reviewed from a queer theory-perspective. One primal assumption is that the criminal legal system is influenced by normative beliefs that prevail in society, but also the legal system in itself contributes to establish moral social codes.

Social science studies on domestic violence has had a decisive role in the criminal handling of this type of crimes. It was not until men's violence against women was drafted as a political social issue as measures of criminal law were considered justified. Same-sex domestic violence though has not been given the same amount of attention in social studies, which has led to the invisibility of this issue. The definition of domestic violence in the Penal Code and in general criminal law has largely been based on the models and research made by social science. Therefore, both social science and criminal law are in lack of knowledge and appreciation reguarding violence in same-sex relationships.

The discourses that according to this paper can be traced in the legal understandings of domestic violence in general and violence in same-sex relationships in particular, proves that heteronormative conceptions of domestic violence are prominent. The discoursive ways that violence in same-sex relationships are addressed in legal contexts are either not at all, or only as a less important exeption to men's violence against women. Constituent elements, such as close relationships and which group of people that primarily are to be protected by the law, are constructed from a heteronormative approach. Same-sex domestic violence is often refered to as an issue due to ignorance, that can not properly be dealt with until more knowledge is available. Such descriptions runs the risk of contributing to further marginalization of people who are challenging the heteronormative structures.},
  author       = {Bogren, Elin},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law,partnervåld,domestic violence,samkönat partnervåld,same-sex relationships,diskurs,heteronormativitet,queerteori},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Partnervåldets normativa ramar - en queerteoretisk granskning av diskurser inom straffrätten},
  year         = {2016},
}