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Sambors efterlevandeskydd i Skandinavien – en komparativ studie med rättspolitiska reflektioner

Persson, Henrik LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
När ett samboförhållande upphör genom den ena sambons död har den efterlevande sambon oftast ett lagstadgat ekonomiskt skydd. Detta gäller i samtliga skandinaviska länder. Uppsatsen syftar till att jämföra efterlevandeskyddet för sambor i Sverige, Norge och Danmark, eftersom skyddet i dessa länder skiljer sig åt.

I Sverige har efterlevande sambor rätt att begära bodelning. Sambor med gemensamma barn i Norge har inbördes arvsrätt, dock med en viss beloppsgräns. I Danmark saknar sambor såväl rätt att begära bodelning som inbördes arvsrätt. Detta kompenseras dock av att dansk rätt erbjuder vissa sambor en möjlighet att genom testamente likställa sig med makar när det gäller rätten till arv. Även i Sverige och Norge är det möjligt för... (More)
När ett samboförhållande upphör genom den ena sambons död har den efterlevande sambon oftast ett lagstadgat ekonomiskt skydd. Detta gäller i samtliga skandinaviska länder. Uppsatsen syftar till att jämföra efterlevandeskyddet för sambor i Sverige, Norge och Danmark, eftersom skyddet i dessa länder skiljer sig åt.

I Sverige har efterlevande sambor rätt att begära bodelning. Sambor med gemensamma barn i Norge har inbördes arvsrätt, dock med en viss beloppsgräns. I Danmark saknar sambor såväl rätt att begära bodelning som inbördes arvsrätt. Detta kompenseras dock av att dansk rätt erbjuder vissa sambor en möjlighet att genom testamente likställa sig med makar när det gäller rätten till arv. Även i Sverige och Norge är det möjligt för sambor att stärka varandras efterlevandeskydd genom att upprätta testamente. Testamentsrätten är dock i olika grad begränsad i de skandinaviska länderna av eventuella bröstarvingars rätt till arv. Efterlevande sambor i Sverige, Norge och Danmark har vidare en möjlighet att under vissa förutsättningar överta den gemensamma bostaden från den avlidna sambon.

Det svenska efterlevandeskyddet för sambor har kritiserats för att vara otillfredsställande. Uppsatsen syftar därför också till att utreda om den svenska lagstiftarens ståndpunkter angående sambors efterlevandeskydd utgör hinder mot att stärka det svenska skyddet med något eller några av de alternativ som har valts i Norge och Danmark.

Den svenska lagstiftaren har inte velat stärka efterlevandeskyddet ytterligare främst med hänvisning till att sambor i långvariga förhållanden kan antas ha gjort ett medvetet val att undgå äktenskapets rättsverkningar, däribland arvsrätt. Jag menar emellertid att den danska möjligheten för sambor att genom testamente likställa sig med makar är förenlig med detta argument. En sådan reglering skulle nämligen inte påtvinga sambor äktenskapets rättsverkningar eftersom det krävs ett aktivt handlande från sambornas sida för att de ska kunna ärva varandra som om de vore makar. Med hänsyn till lagstiftarens inställning är det svårare att motivera ett införande av arvsrätt mellan sambor liknande den arvsrätt som finns i Norge. Jag anser dock att lagstiftarens argument kan ifrågasättas. En undersökning har exempelvis visat att sambors val av samlevnadsform endast i sällsynta fall föranletts av en önskan att omfattas av ett visst regelsystem. (Less)
Abstract
When cohabitation ceases by the death of one of the cohabitants, the surviving cohabitant usually has a statutory right to some financial protection. This applies to all Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the financial protection that surviving cohabitants have in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, since the protection in these countries differs.

In Sweden, a cohabitant who outlives his or her partner has a right to request division of property. Cohabitants in Norway with common children have a limited right to inherit each other. In Denmark, cohabitants lack both of these rights. Danish law does, however, provide certain cohabitants a possibility to equate themselves with married spouses when it comes to the... (More)
When cohabitation ceases by the death of one of the cohabitants, the surviving cohabitant usually has a statutory right to some financial protection. This applies to all Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the financial protection that surviving cohabitants have in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, since the protection in these countries differs.

In Sweden, a cohabitant who outlives his or her partner has a right to request division of property. Cohabitants in Norway with common children have a limited right to inherit each other. In Denmark, cohabitants lack both of these rights. Danish law does, however, provide certain cohabitants a possibility to equate themselves with married spouses when it comes to the right of inheritance. This is done through the establishment of wills. In Sweden and Norway it is also possible for cohabitants to strengthen each other’s financial protection through the establishment of wills. This possibility is, however, limited in all of the Scandinavian countries to different degrees by the inheritance rights of children. A surviving cohabitant further has a right in Sweden, Norway and Denmark under certain conditions to take over the home in which the cohabitants lived together from the deceased cohabitant.

The Swedish protection for surviving cohabitants has been criticized as unsatisfactory. The thesis therefore also aims to investigate whether the Swedish legislature’s positions regarding the protection for surviving cohabitants preclude the strengthening of the Swedish protection with the alternatives that have been chosen in Norway and Denmark.

The Swedish legislature has not wanted to strengthen the protection for surviving cohabitants further. The legislature has argued that long-term cohabitants can be assumed to have made a conscious choice to avoid the legal effects of marriage, including the right of inheritance. I am, however, of the opinion that the Danish right for cohabitants to equate themselves with married spouses is consistent with the legislature’s argument. Such a right would not impose the legal effects of marriage onto cohabitants because it requires that the cohabitants make an active choice to write a will for them to be able to inherit each other as if they were married. Given the legislature's stance, it is more difficult to justify the introduction of inheritance rights between cohabitants similar to the inheritance rights found in Norway. However, I am of the belief that the legislature's arguments are questionable. A study has, for example, shown that only in rare cases are couples’ choices to live together as cohabitants instead of getting married caused by a wish to avoid the legal effects of marriage. (Less)
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author
Persson, Henrik LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
civilrätt, familjerätt, komparativ rätt
language
Swedish
id
8874117
date added to LUP
2016-07-04 09:09:58
date last changed
2016-07-04 09:09:58
@misc{8874117,
  abstract     = {When cohabitation ceases by the death of one of the cohabitants, the surviving cohabitant usually has a statutory right to some financial protection. This applies to all Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the financial protection that surviving cohabitants have in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, since the protection in these countries differs.

In Sweden, a cohabitant who outlives his or her partner has a right to request division of property. Cohabitants in Norway with common children have a limited right to inherit each other. In Denmark, cohabitants lack both of these rights. Danish law does, however, provide certain cohabitants a possibility to equate themselves with married spouses when it comes to the right of inheritance. This is done through the establishment of wills. In Sweden and Norway it is also possible for cohabitants to strengthen each other’s financial protection through the establishment of wills. This possibility is, however, limited in all of the Scandinavian countries to different degrees by the inheritance rights of children. A surviving cohabitant further has a right in Sweden, Norway and Denmark under certain conditions to take over the home in which the cohabitants lived together from the deceased cohabitant.

The Swedish protection for surviving cohabitants has been criticized as unsatisfactory. The thesis therefore also aims to investigate whether the Swedish legislature’s positions regarding the protection for surviving cohabitants preclude the strengthening of the Swedish protection with the alternatives that have been chosen in Norway and Denmark.

The Swedish legislature has not wanted to strengthen the protection for surviving cohabitants further. The legislature has argued that long-term cohabitants can be assumed to have made a conscious choice to avoid the legal effects of marriage, including the right of inheritance. I am, however, of the opinion that the Danish right for cohabitants to equate themselves with married spouses is consistent with the legislature’s argument. Such a right would not impose the legal effects of marriage onto cohabitants because it requires that the cohabitants make an active choice to write a will for them to be able to inherit each other as if they were married. Given the legislature's stance, it is more difficult to justify the introduction of inheritance rights between cohabitants similar to the inheritance rights found in Norway. However, I am of the belief that the legislature's arguments are questionable. A study has, for example, shown that only in rare cases are couples’ choices to live together as cohabitants instead of getting married caused by a wish to avoid the legal effects of marriage.},
  author       = {Persson, Henrik},
  keyword      = {civilrätt,familjerätt,komparativ rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sambors efterlevandeskydd i Skandinavien – en komparativ studie med rättspolitiska reflektioner},
  year         = {2016},
}