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Till skydd mot skada - En teoretisk systematisering och en praktisk prövning av intresse- och skadebegreppen vid kriminalisering

Sterner, Viktor LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Liksom samhällsmedborgarna behöver förhålla sig till straffrätten, bör också staten behöva förhålla sig till densamma genom att ramar uppställs för när straffrätten kan användas. En sådan ram är att kriminalisering får användas för att förhindra att skada uppkommer på ett skyddsintresse.

Detta examensarbete har till syfte att undersöka innebörden av det straffrättsliga skadebegreppet vid kriminaliseringsöverväganden. Nämnda skadebegrepp är tätt sammankopplat med intressebegreppet, varför också det undersöks. Uppsatsen ämnar också belysa den glidning som finns mellan teori och praktik i kriminaliseringsdiskussionen, varför teorin konfronteras med verkligheten i form av de två gärningstyperna vuxenincest och tidelag, inom ramen för... (More)
Liksom samhällsmedborgarna behöver förhålla sig till straffrätten, bör också staten behöva förhålla sig till densamma genom att ramar uppställs för när straffrätten kan användas. En sådan ram är att kriminalisering får användas för att förhindra att skada uppkommer på ett skyddsintresse.

Detta examensarbete har till syfte att undersöka innebörden av det straffrättsliga skadebegreppet vid kriminaliseringsöverväganden. Nämnda skadebegrepp är tätt sammankopplat med intressebegreppet, varför också det undersöks. Uppsatsen ämnar också belysa den glidning som finns mellan teori och praktik i kriminaliseringsdiskussionen, varför teorin konfronteras med verkligheten i form av de två gärningstyperna vuxenincest och tidelag, inom ramen för uppsatsens avslutande avsnitt.

Den första delen av arbetets syfte, begreppsbestämningen, sker i två delar där vart och ett av begreppen utreds för sig. Dessa avsnitt kan tillsammans sägas bilda ett nät, vilket kan användas för att avgöra en kriminaliserings legitimitet. En mängd teori, svensk såväl som anglosaxisk, redogörs för samt analyseras i två delanalyser. Utifrån detta görs en systematisering av den teoribildning som finns kring skade- och intressebegreppen, så att en bild tecknas av vad som döljer sig bakom dem. Som övergripande slutsats, redovisas att intressebegreppet bör kunna definieras fritt från kränkning, och att skadebegreppet tynger diskussionen om en kriminaliserings vara eller icke vara. Intressets status före och efter en kränkning är vad som är centralt, liksom den i litteraturen relativt negligerade diskussionen om kriminalisering som ultima ratio. Den sistnämnda tanken befinns vara av vikt eftersom den balanseringsprocess som i uppsatsen framstår som nödvändig vid kriminalisering, till betydande del bör påverkas av tanken på kriminalisering som en sista utväg.

För att uppfylla även den andra delen av syftet med arbetet, sker i ett senare avsnitt en genomgång av motiven bakom kriminaliseringarna av gärningstyperna vuxenincest och tidelag. En kort historisk återblick görs i detta avsnitt tillsammans med en mer omfattande redogörelse för motiven bakom de nuvarande regleringarnas framväxt.

I uppsatsens avslutande del konfronteras sedan teorierna med verkligheten. Här företas en analys av teoriernas förmåga att appliceras på konkreta fall, jämte en analys av hur kriminaliseringarna av de två nämnda gärningstyperna förhåller sig till de normer som försökts att skapas genom uppsatsens begreppsavsnitt. Resultatet visar en glidning mellan teori och verklighet, på så vis att många av teorierna är svåra att applicera och att det är tveksamt om lagstiftningen i de aktuella fallen kan sägas uppnå de krav som rimligen bör ställas på staten då den tillgriper kriminalisering. (Less)
Abstract
As much as members of society need to conform their conduct to the penal law, the state should also have to adhere to the penal law, by providing clear guidelines for when such law can be used. Such a guideline is that criminalization may serve to prevent harm to legally-recognized interests.

This thesis aims to explore the concept of harm within the deliberations that attach to the criminalization process. The definition of harm that is given in this thesis, also embraces the concept of legally-protectable ”interests”, which is why the concept of interests is also adressed. The essay intends to highlight the gap that exists between the theory and practice of criminalization. Therefore, the final and concluding chapter of the essay... (More)
As much as members of society need to conform their conduct to the penal law, the state should also have to adhere to the penal law, by providing clear guidelines for when such law can be used. Such a guideline is that criminalization may serve to prevent harm to legally-recognized interests.

This thesis aims to explore the concept of harm within the deliberations that attach to the criminalization process. The definition of harm that is given in this thesis, also embraces the concept of legally-protectable ”interests”, which is why the concept of interests is also adressed. The essay intends to highlight the gap that exists between the theory and practice of criminalization. Therefore, the final and concluding chapter of the essay contrasts the theory and practice of criminalization, demonstrated through the crimes of adult incest and bestiality.

The first part of this thesis’ purpose, to identify the basic concepts of harm and interest, is being adressed in two sections, where each of the concepts are investigated separately. These sections together can be said to form a web, which can be used to determine the legitimacy of criminalization. A variety of theories, Swedish as well as Anglo-Saxon, are described and examined in two part-analyzes. Based on these analyzes, a systematization of existing theory on the concepts of harm and interests is undertaken, in order to illustrate their concealed meaning. As an overall conclusion, it is postulated that the concept of interest should be defined free from violations, and that the concept of harm in meaningful ways oppresses the discussion concerning the justification for criminalization. The status of the interest, before and after a violation, is the important part, as is the relatively neglected discussion on criminalization as ultima ratio. The latter idea is found to be important because the balancing process – in the essay appearing necessary when looking at the deliberations that inhere to criminalization – to a large extent is influenced by the idea of crimi-nalization as a last resort.

In order to answer the second part of the thesis’ purpose, a review of the rationale behind the criminalization of adult incest and bestiality is attempted. A brief historical review is given in this section alongside a more comprehensive recitation detailing the emergence of the established law.

In the last section, the theories are confronted with reality. An analysis is made of the applicability of the theories to concrete cases, together with an analysis of how criminalization of these two crimes relates to the standards that are devoloped in the concept sections of this thesis. The results show a gap between theory and reality, in that many of the theories prove difficult to apply in practice, as well as it is doubtful wheter legislation of the crimes analyzed can be justified under the standards imposed on the state, when it resorts to criminalization of conduct. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Sterner, Viktor LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Protection against harm - A theoretical systematization and practical examination of the concepts of legally-recognized interests and harm
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, Criminal law, Rättsvetenskap, Law
language
Swedish
id
8874180
date added to LUP
2016-06-10 14:44:01
date last changed
2016-06-10 14:44:01
@misc{8874180,
  abstract     = {As much as members of society need to conform their conduct to the penal law, the state should also have to adhere to the penal law, by providing clear guidelines for when such law can be used. Such a guideline is that criminalization may serve to prevent harm to legally-recognized interests. 

This thesis aims to explore the concept of harm within the deliberations that attach to the criminalization process. The definition of harm that is given in this thesis, also embraces the concept of legally-protectable ”interests”, which is why the concept of interests is also adressed. The essay intends to highlight the gap that exists between the theory and practice of criminalization. Therefore, the final and concluding chapter of the essay contrasts the theory and practice of criminalization, demonstrated through the crimes of adult incest and bestiality.

The first part of this thesis’ purpose, to identify the basic concepts of harm and interest, is being adressed in two sections, where each of the concepts are investigated separately. These sections together can be said to form a web, which can be used to determine the legitimacy of criminalization. A variety of theories, Swedish as well as Anglo-Saxon, are described and examined in two part-analyzes. Based on these analyzes, a systematization of existing theory on the concepts of harm and interests is undertaken, in order to illustrate their concealed meaning. As an overall conclusion, it is postulated that the concept of interest should be defined free from violations, and that the concept of harm in meaningful ways oppresses the discussion concerning the justification for criminalization. The status of the interest, before and after a violation, is the important part, as is the relatively neglected discussion on criminalization as ultima ratio. The latter idea is found to be important because the balancing process – in the essay appearing necessary when looking at the deliberations that inhere to criminalization – to a large extent is influenced by the idea of crimi-nalization as a last resort.

In order to answer the second part of the thesis’ purpose, a review of the rationale behind the criminalization of adult incest and bestiality is attempted. A brief historical review is given in this section alongside a more comprehensive recitation detailing the emergence of the established law.

In the last section, the theories are confronted with reality. An analysis is made of the applicability of the theories to concrete cases, together with an analysis of how criminalization of these two crimes relates to the standards that are devoloped in the concept sections of this thesis. The results show a gap between theory and reality, in that many of the theories prove difficult to apply in practice, as well as it is doubtful wheter legislation of the crimes analyzed can be justified under the standards imposed on the state, when it resorts to criminalization of conduct.},
  author       = {Sterner, Viktor},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,Criminal law,Rättsvetenskap,Law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Till skydd mot skada - En teoretisk systematisering och en praktisk prövning av intresse- och skadebegreppen vid kriminalisering},
  year         = {2016},
}