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Psykopatpusslet - Straffrättshistoriskt om själsligt abnorma förbrytare

Åhslund, Caroline LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Från att i likhet med barn och gamla ha särbehandlats genom straffriförklaring vid bedömningen om skuld och straff, definierades under 1800-talet psykiskt avvikande brottslingar som otillräkneliga sinnessjuka och förminskat tillräkneliga psykiskt ”abnorma”. I 1864 års strafflag straffriförklarades de sinnessjuka och placerades i vård för att skrivas ut när, och om, de bedömdes friska. Den senare gruppen, som bl.a. utgjordes av psykopater, fick istället strafflindring. Ur allmänpreventiv synpunkt verkade förkortade straff dels försämra samhällets skydd från psykopatiska brottslingar och dels hämma straffets avskräckande funktion. Psykopaterna ansågs, som konstitutionellt defekta, dessutom inte kunna tillgodogöra sig den moral det vanliga... (More)
Från att i likhet med barn och gamla ha särbehandlats genom straffriförklaring vid bedömningen om skuld och straff, definierades under 1800-talet psykiskt avvikande brottslingar som otillräkneliga sinnessjuka och förminskat tillräkneliga psykiskt ”abnorma”. I 1864 års strafflag straffriförklarades de sinnessjuka och placerades i vård för att skrivas ut när, och om, de bedömdes friska. Den senare gruppen, som bl.a. utgjordes av psykopater, fick istället strafflindring. Ur allmänpreventiv synpunkt verkade förkortade straff dels försämra samhällets skydd från psykopatiska brottslingar och dels hämma straffets avskräckande funktion. Psykopaterna ansågs, som konstitutionellt defekta, dessutom inte kunna tillgodogöra sig den moral det vanliga straffet syftade till. Av dessa skäl började domstolar, på psykiatrers uppmuntran, straffriförklara även psykopatiska förbrytare, med överbelastning av sinnessjukhusen och provisoriska, ofta undermåliga, vårdanstalter som följd. Under 1920-talet lagstiftades om möjlighet till förvaring av de förminskat tillräkneliga förbrytarna i särskilda anstalter, som ett alternativ till strafflindring. Förvaring skedde på obestämd tid, till dess samhällsvådligheten bedömdes ha försvunnit. 1945 försökte lagstiftaren, genom en ändring i strafflagen vilken innebar att grav psykopati fick straffriförklaras, återigen minska antalet straffriförklarande av psykopater. Vid brottsbalkens ikraftträdande 1965 hade begreppet tillräknelighet och möjligheten till straffrihet borttagits helt. Samtliga gärningsmän skulle dömas men till lämplig påföljd. För psykopaterna kvarstod indelningen mellan grav och lindrig, varav de första fick dömas endast till särskild vård, och de övriga till skyddstillsyn eller böter. Bara om särskilda skäl förelåg kunde strafflindring tillämpas. Med 1966 års lag om beredande av sluten psykiatrisk vård i vissa fall, kom psykopatiska gärningsmän återigen att behandlas som antingen helt sjuk eller som mer eller mindre ”normal”. Efter många decennier av juridikens och psykiatrins försök att på lämpligast sätt placera in dessa människor i straffrättssystemet, blev resultatet av rättsutvecklingen således påfallande likt den ursprungliga situationen. (Less)
Abstract
From having been declared exempt from punishment, alongside children and the elderly, mentally anomalistic were defined in the 1900th century as the unaccountable mentally ill, and the accountably reduced mentally abnormal. The penal code of 1864 declared the mentally ill criminals exempt from punishment, and to be put under medical care from which to be released when, and if, cured. The mentally abnormal, who partly consisted of psychopaths, instead had their term of punishment reduced. From the perspective of general prevention, reduced sentences seemed to deteriorate the protection against psychopathic criminals as well as hinder the prohibitive effect of imprisonment. Furthermore the psychopaths, regarded as constitutionally deflected,... (More)
From having been declared exempt from punishment, alongside children and the elderly, mentally anomalistic were defined in the 1900th century as the unaccountable mentally ill, and the accountably reduced mentally abnormal. The penal code of 1864 declared the mentally ill criminals exempt from punishment, and to be put under medical care from which to be released when, and if, cured. The mentally abnormal, who partly consisted of psychopaths, instead had their term of punishment reduced. From the perspective of general prevention, reduced sentences seemed to deteriorate the protection against psychopathic criminals as well as hinder the prohibitive effect of imprisonment. Furthermore the psychopaths, regarded as constitutionally deflected, were seemingly unable to receive the morals aimed to be inflicted by traditional punishment. On these grounds courts, encouraged by psychiatrists, began to include psychopaths within the exemption from punishment. This practice lead to an overcharge of the psychiatric hospitals as well as provisional, often substandard, care establishments. New legislation during the 1920s regulated safekeeping of the accountably reduced criminals in special institutions, as an alternative to reduced punishment. The criminals were to be institutionalised indefinitely, but for as long as they remained a public danger. In 1945, the legislator intended to further decrease the declarations of exemption from punishment through an amendment of the penal code which included psychopaths to the exemption, although limited to severe cases. With the arrival of the criminal code in 1965, the concept of accountability, alongside exemption from punishment, were erased. Criminals suffering from severe psychopathology were to be sentenced to appropriate special care, whereas the mildly afflicted could qualify for probation or fine. Reduction of punishment remained possible only on a few particular grounds. 1966 years legislation on closed psychiatric care meant psychopaths once again were to be judged either as ill or as nearly “normal”, somewhat repeating history after decades of attempts to properly fit these criminals into the legal system. (Less)
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author
Åhslund, Caroline LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
rättshistoria, straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
8874283
date added to LUP
2016-07-04 09:28:52
date last changed
2016-07-04 09:28:52
@misc{8874283,
  abstract     = {From having been declared exempt from punishment, alongside children and the elderly, mentally anomalistic were defined in the 1900th century as the unaccountable mentally ill, and the accountably reduced mentally abnormal. The penal code of 1864 declared the mentally ill criminals exempt from punishment, and to be put under medical care from which to be released when, and if, cured. The mentally abnormal, who partly consisted of psychopaths, instead had their term of punishment reduced. From the perspective of general prevention, reduced sentences seemed to deteriorate the protection against psychopathic criminals as well as hinder the prohibitive effect of imprisonment. Furthermore the psychopaths, regarded as constitutionally deflected, were seemingly unable to receive the morals aimed to be inflicted by traditional punishment. On these grounds courts, encouraged by psychiatrists, began to include psychopaths within the exemption from punishment. This practice lead to an overcharge of the psychiatric hospitals as well as provisional, often substandard, care establishments. New legislation during the 1920s regulated safekeeping of the accountably reduced criminals in special institutions, as an alternative to reduced punishment. The criminals were to be institutionalised indefinitely, but for as long as they remained a public danger. In 1945, the legislator intended to further decrease the declarations of exemption from punishment through an amendment of the penal code which included psychopaths to the exemption, although limited to severe cases. With the arrival of the criminal code in 1965, the concept of accountability, alongside exemption from punishment, were erased. Criminals suffering from severe psychopathology were to be sentenced to appropriate special care, whereas the mildly afflicted could qualify for probation or fine. Reduction of punishment remained possible only on a few particular grounds. 1966 years legislation on closed psychiatric care meant psychopaths once again were to be judged either as ill or as nearly “normal”, somewhat repeating history after decades of attempts to properly fit these criminals into the legal system.},
  author       = {Åhslund, Caroline},
  keyword      = {rättshistoria,straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Psykopatpusslet - Straffrättshistoriskt om själsligt abnorma förbrytare},
  year         = {2016},
}