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Surrogatbarn till svenska föräldrar - Om de rättsliga konsekvenser som uppkommer i samband med ett barns inresa i Sverige

Tamjidi, Shanice LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I enlighet med bestämmelserna i lagen om genetisk integritet m.m. är surrogatmoderskap inte tillåtet inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård. Vissa ofrivilligt barnlösa som saknar möjlighet till behandling med assisterad befruktning i Sverige, söker sig därför utomlands för att genomgå surrogatarrangemang. Svårigheter kan uppstå när de tilltänkta föräldrarna vill ta hem barnet till Sverige. Eftersom surrogatarrangemang i utlandet med svenska tilltänkta föräldrar är av en internationell karaktär, aktualiseras svensk gällande rätt och internationell privaträtt. Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda möjligheterna för de svenska tilltänkta föräldrarna att ta hem sitt surrogatbarn.

Av föräldrabalken framgår att surrogatmodern ska anses som barnets... (More)
I enlighet med bestämmelserna i lagen om genetisk integritet m.m. är surrogatmoderskap inte tillåtet inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård. Vissa ofrivilligt barnlösa som saknar möjlighet till behandling med assisterad befruktning i Sverige, söker sig därför utomlands för att genomgå surrogatarrangemang. Svårigheter kan uppstå när de tilltänkta föräldrarna vill ta hem barnet till Sverige. Eftersom surrogatarrangemang i utlandet med svenska tilltänkta föräldrar är av en internationell karaktär, aktualiseras svensk gällande rätt och internationell privaträtt. Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda möjligheterna för de svenska tilltänkta föräldrarna att ta hem sitt surrogatbarn.

Av föräldrabalken framgår att surrogatmodern ska anses som barnets rättsliga mor. Därmed måste det rättsliga faderskapet fastställas. Fastställelsen kan ske genom en utländsk faderskapsfastställelse i enlighet med lagen om internationella faderskapsfrågor. Om fastställelsen är giltig, ska barnet anses ha beviljats svenskt medborgarskap vid födelsen. Barnet kan då få ett svenskt pass och resa till Sverige med sina tilltänkta föräldrar. Om en giltig faderskapsfastställelse saknas vid barnets inresa i Sverige, måste barnet inneha ett svenskt uppehållstillstånd. Varken Migrationsverket eller migrationsdomstolarna har behandlat frågan om ett surrogatbarn kan beviljas uppehållstillstånd på anknytning till sin genetiska far. Frågan får därmed anses oklar.

Den genetiska modern kan ansöka om en s.k. närståendeadoption. Genom adoptionen kan hon anses som barnets rättsliga moder. Vid en sådan adoption krävs dock faderns samtycke. Om ett samtycke saknas kommer barnet att sakna möjlighet till umgängesrätt med sin genetiska moder. Med beaktande av detta är slutsatsen att samtyckeskravet borde avskaffas i förhållande till närståendeadoptioner av barn tillkomna genom ett surrogatarrangemang, och detta med hänvisning till att kravet inte överensstämmer med principen om barnets bästa.

Genom att undersöka doktrin, lagstiftning, förarbeten och artiklar samt genom att tillämpa teorin om normativa grundmönster, är slutsatsen att det är upp till rättsväsendet om de svenska tilltänkta föräldrarna ska få hem sitt surrogatbarn till Sverige. Vidare råder en konflikt mellan barnets och föräldrarnas intresse av att återförena familjen i Sverige och lagstiftarens intresse av att motverka otillåtna former av assisterad befruktning. (Less)
Abstract
Accordning to the provisions of the Genetic Integrity Act, surrogacy is not permitted in the Swedish health care system. Thus some individuals who suffer from involuntary childlessness cannot be offered treatment of assisted reproduction in Sweden. Some of them travel abroad to undergo surrogate arrangements. When the prospective parents wish to bring their child home difficulties arise. Due to the fact that surrogacy arrangements abroad with prospective Swedish parents are of an international character, Swedish current law and Private International Law apply. This thesis seeks to clarify the possibilities for the Swedish prospective parents to bring their surrogate child back home.

According to the Children and Parents Code, the... (More)
Accordning to the provisions of the Genetic Integrity Act, surrogacy is not permitted in the Swedish health care system. Thus some individuals who suffer from involuntary childlessness cannot be offered treatment of assisted reproduction in Sweden. Some of them travel abroad to undergo surrogate arrangements. When the prospective parents wish to bring their child home difficulties arise. Due to the fact that surrogacy arrangements abroad with prospective Swedish parents are of an international character, Swedish current law and Private International Law apply. This thesis seeks to clarify the possibilities for the Swedish prospective parents to bring their surrogate child back home.

According to the Children and Parents Code, the surrogate mother shall be regarded as the legal mother of the child. Therefore the legal fatherhood has to be established. This can be done by a foreign establishment of paternity that is valid under the International Paternity Act. If such an establishment is valid, the child will acquire a Swedish citizenship at birth. Furthermore the child can obtain a Swedish passport and travel to Sweden with its prospective parents. In the absence of a valid establishment of paternity at the child’s arrival in Sweden, the child must require a permanent residence permit in Sweden. Neither the Swedish Migration Agency nor the Migration Courts have addressed the question concerning a surrogate child being granted a residence permit based on the child’s genetic link to its Swedish father. The question must therefore be considered unclear.

The genetic mother can apply for what is called a stepchild adoption. By adoption, she can be regarded as the child’s legal mother. However, such an adoption requires the consent of the father. Without the consent, the child will not be able to have visitation rights with its genetic mother. Therefore, the conclusion is that the requirement of a consent should be abolished in cases of surrogacy, and this due to the fact that it is not compatible with the principle of the best interests of the child.

Through a thorough examination of legislative history, doctrine, legislation and articles and by applying the study of basic normative patterns, the conclusion is that it is up to the judicial system if the Swedish parents will be able to bring their child born through surrogacy to Sweden. Moreover, there is conflict between the child and parents interets of uniting their family in Sweden and the legislatures interest in preventing illegal forms of assisted reproduction. (Less)
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author
Tamjidi, Shanice LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Surrogate children to Swedish parents - On the legal consequences arising in connection with a child's entry into Sweden
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
family law, surrogatmoderskap, familjerätt, assisterad befruktning, assisted reproduction, surrogacy
language
Swedish
id
8874998
date added to LUP
2016-06-07 13:17:47
date last changed
2016-06-07 13:17:47
@misc{8874998,
  abstract     = {Accordning to the provisions of the Genetic Integrity Act, surrogacy is not permitted in the Swedish health care system. Thus some individuals who suffer from involuntary childlessness cannot be offered treatment of assisted reproduction in Sweden. Some of them travel abroad to undergo surrogate arrangements. When the prospective parents wish to bring their child home difficulties arise. Due to the fact that surrogacy arrangements abroad with prospective Swedish parents are of an international character, Swedish current law and Private International Law apply. This thesis seeks to clarify the possibilities for the Swedish prospective parents to bring their surrogate child back home. 

According to the Children and Parents Code, the surrogate mother shall be regarded as the legal mother of the child. Therefore the legal fatherhood has to be established. This can be done by a foreign establishment of paternity that is valid under the International Paternity Act. If such an establishment is valid, the child will acquire a Swedish citizenship at birth. Furthermore the child can obtain a Swedish passport and travel to Sweden with its prospective parents. In the absence of a valid establishment of paternity at the child’s arrival in Sweden, the child must require a permanent residence permit in Sweden. Neither the Swedish Migration Agency nor the Migration Courts have addressed the question concerning a surrogate child being granted a residence permit based on the child’s genetic link to its Swedish father. The question must therefore be considered unclear. 

The genetic mother can apply for what is called a stepchild adoption. By adoption, she can be regarded as the child’s legal mother. However, such an adoption requires the consent of the father. Without the consent, the child will not be able to have visitation rights with its genetic mother. Therefore, the conclusion is that the requirement of a consent should be abolished in cases of surrogacy, and this due to the fact that it is not compatible with the principle of the best interests of the child. 

Through a thorough examination of legislative history, doctrine, legislation and articles and by applying the study of basic normative patterns, the conclusion is that it is up to the judicial system if the Swedish parents will be able to bring their child born through surrogacy to Sweden. Moreover, there is conflict between the child and parents interets of uniting their family in Sweden and the legislatures interest in preventing illegal forms of assisted reproduction.},
  author       = {Tamjidi, Shanice},
  keyword      = {family law,surrogatmoderskap,familjerätt,assisterad befruktning,assisted reproduction,surrogacy},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Surrogatbarn till svenska föräldrar - Om de rättsliga konsekvenser som uppkommer i samband med ett barns inresa i Sverige},
  year         = {2016},
}