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Transsexuellas (o)möjlighet att få återupprättelse av staten: en diskursanalys av Justitiekanslerns beslut att inte erkänna ekonomisk ersättning till personer som tvångssteriliserats till följd av att de korrigerat juridisk könstillhörighet

Thor, Annica LU (2016) RÄSK02 20161
Department of Sociology of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Möjligheten att korrigera den juridiska könstillhörigheten är en process som realiserades under 1970-talet i Sverige genom en specifik könstillhörighetslag. Lagen innebar en viss frigörelse för människor att själva bestämma vilken könsidentitet de identifierade sig med och skulle stå registrerade under i folkbokföringen. Som motprestation ställdes dock ett antal krav på de personer som ville korrigera sin juridiska könsidentitet. Ett av dessa krav var ett ultimatum som förutsatte att personerna inte skulle få biologiska barn, de skulle steriliseras. Hundratals personer genomgick processen, och till följd av steriliseringskravet, förlorade alla dessa sin reproduktiva förmåga genom kirurgiska ingrepp.

Steriliseringskravet togs inte bort... (More)
Möjligheten att korrigera den juridiska könstillhörigheten är en process som realiserades under 1970-talet i Sverige genom en specifik könstillhörighetslag. Lagen innebar en viss frigörelse för människor att själva bestämma vilken könsidentitet de identifierade sig med och skulle stå registrerade under i folkbokföringen. Som motprestation ställdes dock ett antal krav på de personer som ville korrigera sin juridiska könsidentitet. Ett av dessa krav var ett ultimatum som förutsatte att personerna inte skulle få biologiska barn, de skulle steriliseras. Hundratals personer genomgick processen, och till följd av steriliseringskravet, förlorade alla dessa sin reproduktiva förmåga genom kirurgiska ingrepp.

Steriliseringskravet togs inte bort förrän år 2013, efter att det konstaterats att kravet stred mot de grundläggande mänskliga rättigheterna och Sveriges grundlag. Till följd av att staten, utan verkligt syfte, tvingat hundratals personer till sterilisering framställdes skadeståndsanspråk mot den svenska staten. Justitiekanslern avslog dock samtliga 161 parters begäran om upprättelse.

Huvudsyftet med detta arbete har därför varit att undersöka om Justitiekanslerns beslut att inte godkänna ekonomisk ersättning eller upprättelse till de tvångssteriliserade personerna påverkats av andra omständigheter än gällande rätt. Syftet har även varit att belysa svenska diskurser kring transsexualism och heteronormativitet genom att ta reda på vilka binära normer kring kön och könsidentitet som går att urskilja i de dokument som legat till grund för det aktuella beslutet. Uppsatsens teoretiska utgångspunkter bottnar i Michel Foucaults och Judith Butlers teorier om biomakt och den heterosexuella matrisen, och den metod som använts är diskursanalys. Analysen är en undersökning av beslutfattares och lagstiftares argumentation och språkbruk, där resultatet illustrerar att det finns resonemang och utsagor som tyder på en uppfattning om könsidentiteter som binära. Lagstiftarna uttrycker även en rädsla för att icke-heterosexuell reproduktion ska bli en realitet och på så vis komplicera det som anses vara ett normativt familjeförhållande. Dessa och liknande argument tyder på att det finns en inställning kring transsexualism som något avvikande och att det finns ett heteronormativt mönster i den svenska samhällsbildningen. (Less)
Abstract
The ability to change the official gender identification was introduced in Sweden, by a particular law regulation, in the beginning of 1970s century. The law meant a certain liberation for people to, independently decide their one gender identity, and which official gender identification they required to get registered into. At the same time, the law also demanded a several conditions in return of the people who wanted to correct their gender identity. One of these requirements was an ultimatum which implied that people who corrects their gender identification wasn’t allowed to procure biological children, and as a solution they was forced into sterilisations. As a result of the sterilisation requirement hundreds of people went through a... (More)
The ability to change the official gender identification was introduced in Sweden, by a particular law regulation, in the beginning of 1970s century. The law meant a certain liberation for people to, independently decide their one gender identity, and which official gender identification they required to get registered into. At the same time, the law also demanded a several conditions in return of the people who wanted to correct their gender identity. One of these requirements was an ultimatum which implied that people who corrects their gender identification wasn’t allowed to procure biological children, and as a solution they was forced into sterilisations. As a result of the sterilisation requirement hundreds of people went through a surgery that resulted in permanent infertility.

The requirement of infertility was not removed until 2013, after it was found that it violated both the fundamental human rights and the Instrument of Swedish government. All this meant that the State of Sweden had forced hundreds of people into sterilisation without a real purpose. On the ground of the violation a damage against the Swedish State was claimed by 161 persons. However, the Office of the Chancellor of justice rejected all the request for redress and damage.

In the light of these facts, the main aim of this essay has been to investigate if the Government’s decision to reject damages and redress was influenced by other factors then the legislation then in force. Another purpose of the essay has been to illustrate the Swedish discourses in transsexualism, heteronormativity and gender norms in the background material to the Government’s decision. The theoretical points of this paper is grounded in Michel Foucault’s and Judith Butler's theories in Biopower and the Heterosexual Matrix. The method that I’ve used is the discourse analysis method, which allows me to investigate lawmaker’s argumentation and language. The conclusion of the results is that there is arguments and statements that suggest an idea of the human gender identities as binary. For example, the lawmakers express a fear of that non-heterosexual reproduction will become a reality and thereby complicate what is considered as a normal family relation. These and similar arguments indicate that there is an attitude to transsexualism as something abnormal and that there is a hetero-normative pattern in the Swedish community. (Less)
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@misc{8879228,
  abstract     = {The ability to change the official gender identification was introduced in Sweden, by a particular law regulation, in the beginning of 1970s century. The law meant a certain liberation for people to, independently decide their one gender identity, and which official gender identification they required to get registered into. At the same time, the law also demanded a several conditions in return of the people who wanted to correct their gender identity. One of these requirements was an ultimatum which implied that people who corrects their gender identification wasn’t allowed to procure biological children, and as a solution they was forced into sterilisations. As a result of the sterilisation requirement hundreds of people went through a surgery that resulted in permanent infertility.

The requirement of infertility was not removed until 2013, after it was found that it violated both the fundamental human rights and the Instrument of Swedish government. All this meant that the State of Sweden had forced hundreds of people into sterilisation without a real purpose. On the ground of the violation a damage against the Swedish State was claimed by 161 persons. However, the Office of the Chancellor of justice rejected all the request for redress and damage.

In the light of these facts, the main aim of this essay has been to investigate if the Government’s decision to reject damages and redress was influenced by other factors then the legislation then in force. Another purpose of the essay has been to illustrate the Swedish discourses in transsexualism, heteronormativity and gender norms in the background material to the Government’s decision. The theoretical points of this paper is grounded in Michel Foucault’s and Judith Butler's theories in Biopower and the Heterosexual Matrix. The method that I’ve used is the discourse analysis method, which allows me to investigate lawmaker’s argumentation and language. The conclusion of the results is that there is arguments and statements that suggest an idea of the human gender identities as binary. For example, the lawmakers express a fear of that non-heterosexual reproduction will become a reality and thereby complicate what is considered as a normal family relation. These and similar arguments indicate that there is an attitude to transsexualism as something abnormal and that there is a hetero-normative pattern in the Swedish community.},
  author       = {Thor, Annica},
  keyword      = {juridisk könstillhörighet,könsidentitet,steriliseringskrav,Heterosexual Matrix,Biopower,heteronormative,transsexualism,gender dichotomy,binary genders,official gender identification,sterilisation requirement,gender identity,könsbinär,könsdikotomi,heteronormativ,biomakt,heterosexuella matrisen},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Transsexuellas (o)möjlighet att få återupprättelse av staten: en diskursanalys av Justitiekanslerns beslut att inte erkänna ekonomisk ersättning till personer som tvångssteriliserats till följd av att de korrigerat juridisk könstillhörighet},
  year         = {2016},
}