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The EU and Turkey statement - Lösning på flyktingkrisen eller i strid med non-refoulementprincipen?

Ivanov, Amanda LU (2016) LAGF03 20161
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The protection of non-refoulement principle is expressed in the Refugee Convention, the Torture Convention and the ECHR. The Principle statutes protection of refugees to not be returned to a country where their human rights are at risk of being impaired. The civil war in Syria has generated that more people than ever are fleeing around the world for protection. A majority have fled to neighbouring countries for refuge, including Turkey. From Turkey many travel further to Greece and then across the Mediterranean by boats with the help of smugglers. The smugglers are taking large amounts of money in exchange for travels which has cost many lives. To counter the illegal market, the EU and Turkey reached a statement which regulates that each... (More)
The protection of non-refoulement principle is expressed in the Refugee Convention, the Torture Convention and the ECHR. The Principle statutes protection of refugees to not be returned to a country where their human rights are at risk of being impaired. The civil war in Syria has generated that more people than ever are fleeing around the world for protection. A majority have fled to neighbouring countries for refuge, including Turkey. From Turkey many travel further to Greece and then across the Mediterranean by boats with the help of smugglers. The smugglers are taking large amounts of money in exchange for travels which has cost many lives. To counter the illegal market, the EU and Turkey reached a statement which regulates that each Syrian travelling illegally from Turkey to Greece is to be returned to Turkey. In exchange, each Syrian who have come legally to Turkey will be given a place in Europe.

The basis in international law is that states are free to agree on what they want in accordance with their sovereignty. However, imperative rights are not optional. The principle of non-refoulement is an absolute agreement which means that agreements contrary to it is invalid. The cooperation between the EU and Turkey has been criticized by many human rights organizations that states that the agreement is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement. The reason is that Turkey is not a safe country to be returned to. In the judgment M.S.S. v Belgium and Greece, the European Court stated that human rights organizations' statements should be accorded great importance. In addition to their statements, a state must examine the person's individual circumstances and clarify that there is no risk that their human rights get violated in the recipient state. The conclusion is that the cooperation between Turkey and the EU violate the principle of non-refoulement. The application of the cooperation results in deportation of refugees to Turkey, which is a state who can not be considered as safe. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Skyddet för non-refoulementprincipen uttrycks bland annat i Flyktingkonventionen, Tortyrkonvention och EKMR. Principen stadgar ett skydd för flyktingar att inte bli återsända till ett land där deras mänskliga rättigheter riskerar kränkas. Inbördeskriget i Syrien har genererat att mer människor än någonsin befinner sig på flykt runt om i världen. En överhängande majoritet har flytt till grannländerna för skydd, bland annat till Turkiet. Från Turkiet tar sig många vidare till Grekland för att resa över medelhavet på gummibåtar med hjälp av människosmugglare. Smugglarna tar stora mängder pengar i utbyte mot resor som hittills kostat många livet. För att motverka den illegala marknaden har EU och Turkiet ingått en överenskommelse som reglerar... (More)
Skyddet för non-refoulementprincipen uttrycks bland annat i Flyktingkonventionen, Tortyrkonvention och EKMR. Principen stadgar ett skydd för flyktingar att inte bli återsända till ett land där deras mänskliga rättigheter riskerar kränkas. Inbördeskriget i Syrien har genererat att mer människor än någonsin befinner sig på flykt runt om i världen. En överhängande majoritet har flytt till grannländerna för skydd, bland annat till Turkiet. Från Turkiet tar sig många vidare till Grekland för att resa över medelhavet på gummibåtar med hjälp av människosmugglare. Smugglarna tar stora mängder pengar i utbyte mot resor som hittills kostat många livet. För att motverka den illegala marknaden har EU och Turkiet ingått en överenskommelse som reglerar att varje syrier som tar sig olagligt från Turkiet till Grekland ska återsändas till Turkiet mot att en syrier som tagit sig legalt till Turkiet ska ges en plats i Europa.

Utgångspunkten i folkrätten är att stater är fria att avtala om vad de vill i enlighet med deras suveränitet. Dock får tvingande rätt inte avtalas bort. Principen om non-refoulement är absolut, avtal i strid med den är därför inte giltiga. Samarbetet har kritiserats av många människorättsorganisationer som anser att överenskommelsen strider mot principen om non-refoulement eftersom Turkiet inte är ett säkert land att återsändas till. I domen M.S.S mot Belgien och Grekland har Europadomstolen uttalat att människorättsorganisationers uttalanden ska tillmätas stor betydelse. Utöver deras uttalanden måste en stat undersöka personens individuella omständigheter och klarlägga att ingen risk föreligger för att deras mänskliga rättigheter i mottagarstaten kränks. Slutsatsen är att samarbetet mellan Turkiet och EU kränker non-refoulementprincipen eftersom den återsänder personer till Turkiet som inte kan anses vara en säker stat. Principen om non- refoulement gäller över internationella överenskommelser som samarbetet mellan Turkiet och EU, vilket gör överenskommelsens tillämpning olovlig. (Less)
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author
Ivanov, Amanda LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20161
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
folkrätt, internationell flyktingrätt, non-refoulement
language
Swedish
id
8880091
date added to LUP
2017-01-31 17:40:20
date last changed
2017-01-31 17:40:20
@misc{8880091,
  abstract     = {The protection of non-refoulement principle is expressed in the Refugee Convention, the Torture Convention and the ECHR. The Principle statutes protection of refugees to not be returned to a country where their human rights are at risk of being impaired. The civil war in Syria has generated that more people than ever are fleeing around the world for protection. A majority have fled to neighbouring countries for refuge, including Turkey. From Turkey many travel further to Greece and then across the Mediterranean by boats with the help of smugglers. The smugglers are taking large amounts of money in exchange for travels which has cost many lives. To counter the illegal market, the EU and Turkey reached a statement which regulates that each Syrian travelling illegally from Turkey to Greece is to be returned to Turkey. In exchange, each Syrian who have come legally to Turkey will be given a place in Europe. 

The basis in international law is that states are free to agree on what they want in accordance with their sovereignty. However, imperative rights are not optional. The principle of non-refoulement is an absolute agreement which means that agreements contrary to it is invalid. The cooperation between the EU and Turkey has been criticized by many human rights organizations that states that the agreement is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement. The reason is that Turkey is not a safe country to be returned to. In the judgment M.S.S. v Belgium and Greece, the European Court stated that human rights organizations' statements should be accorded great importance. In addition to their statements, a state must examine the person's individual circumstances and clarify that there is no risk that their human rights get violated in the recipient state. The conclusion is that the cooperation between Turkey and the EU violate the principle of non-refoulement. The application of the cooperation results in deportation of refugees to Turkey, which is a state who can not be considered as safe.},
  author       = {Ivanov, Amanda},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,internationell flyktingrätt,non-refoulement},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The EU and Turkey statement - Lösning på flyktingkrisen eller i strid med non-refoulementprincipen?},
  year         = {2016},
}