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Acoustic Design of Swimming Halls

Hall, Malin LU (2016) In TVBA-5000 VTA820 20161
Department of Construction Sciences
Engineering Acoustics
Abstract
The Master thesis considers acoustic design of swimming halls. Focus is put into design solutions affecting the acoustic environment such as walls, absorbents and shape. The basis is gained from literature studies and new information achieved specific for the thesis.
Swimming halls are built in a certain way that makes a good acoustic environment hard to achieve. The construction consists of hard surfaces and with large volume which creates a loud environment with lot of echoes. The safety aspect may be harmed by this and it can also cause health problems.
The problem is that acoustic solutions are difficult to apply to swimming halls due to climate and function demands, for example the lower parts of the walls being exposed to water... (More)
The Master thesis considers acoustic design of swimming halls. Focus is put into design solutions affecting the acoustic environment such as walls, absorbents and shape. The basis is gained from literature studies and new information achieved specific for the thesis.
Swimming halls are built in a certain way that makes a good acoustic environment hard to achieve. The construction consists of hard surfaces and with large volume which creates a loud environment with lot of echoes. The safety aspect may be harmed by this and it can also cause health problems.
The problem is that acoustic solutions are difficult to apply to swimming halls due to climate and function demands, for example the lower parts of the walls being exposed to water and contact. One problem is that acousticians are consulted at a later stage in the project where available solutions are more limited. The acoustic influence is getting more prioritized nowadays which is important in order to achieve a desired acoustic environment.
During the thesis persons with great expertise in areas regarding construction of swimming halls, both acousticians and other professionals, are interviewed. Visitors and employees in swimming halls have been consulted with questionnaires and the subjective part of acoustics is gained. Measurements in Hylliebadet in Malmö have been performed as well as simulations of a swimming hall in two versions. Parameters such as reverberation time, sound pressure level, speech intelligibility etc. are investigated as well as the subjective opinion on the acoustic environment in swimming halls.
The study presents results showing that the recommended reverberation time is achieved for new swimming halls with absorbents placed on the ceiling and on the walls. It also shows that the acoustic environment is improved by tilting a wall. The background noise is a part of the problem and to reduce this is an important aspect. The speech intelligibility is important for safety reasons and a sufficient level seems hard to achieve. The visitors are satisfied with the environment but the employees are exposed to a work environment that needs to be improved.
Solutions suggested are primarily an addition of absorbents, lower ceiling height and one tilted wall. Screens may be useful for educational purposes and water as a sound source should be further investigated. Drains for example causes high background noise and more quiet solutions would improve the acoustic environment and reduce the risk that visitors speak even louder, which creates even more sound.
The tools to achieve this are to include an acoustician in the early stage of the project. When acoustic solutions can be suggested before the design is determined the outcome is better and the cost lower. It also avoids the risk for later alterations. The team working with the swimming hall project should have experience from swimming halls and share this. Collaboration between acousticians and architects creates better solutions and reduces the risk for undesired compromises. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Det här examensarbetet behandlar den akustiska utformningen av simhallar. Fokus ligger på de lösningar som påverkar akustiken, så som väggar, absorbenter och utformningen. Grunden till arbetet är baserat på befintlig litteratur och ny information framtaget för arbetet.
Simhallar är en svår akustisk lokal där många hårda ytor och stora volymer försvårar. Detta ger en ljudmiljö med hög ljudnivå och långvariga reflektioner. Säkerhetsaspekten kan bli försämrad på grund av detta. Dessutom kan en dålig ljudmiljö leda till hälsorisker.
Problemet är att akustiska lösningar är svåra att applicera på simhallar, mycket på grund av klimatet och funktionskraven. Ett problem är att akustiker ofta tillfrågas i ett senare skede då utformningen redan... (More)
Det här examensarbetet behandlar den akustiska utformningen av simhallar. Fokus ligger på de lösningar som påverkar akustiken, så som väggar, absorbenter och utformningen. Grunden till arbetet är baserat på befintlig litteratur och ny information framtaget för arbetet.
Simhallar är en svår akustisk lokal där många hårda ytor och stora volymer försvårar. Detta ger en ljudmiljö med hög ljudnivå och långvariga reflektioner. Säkerhetsaspekten kan bli försämrad på grund av detta. Dessutom kan en dålig ljudmiljö leda till hälsorisker.
Problemet är att akustiska lösningar är svåra att applicera på simhallar, mycket på grund av klimatet och funktionskraven. Ett problem är att akustiker ofta tillfrågas i ett senare skede då utformningen redan är fastställd vilket begränsar möjligheterna. Akustiken blir mer och mer prioriterat och detta är viktigt för att uppnå en önskad ljudmiljö.
Under arbetes gång har kunniga personer tillfrågats och deras kunskap och erfarenhet är en viktig del av underlaget för slutsatsen. Detta gjordes via intervjuer. Även enkäter har använts där åsikter från besökare och anställda har kartlagts vilket inkluderar den subjektiva aspekten av akustik. Egna mätningar har utförts på Hylliebadet i Malmö och utformningen av simhallen har efterliknats och generaliserats för simuleringar. Två olika utformningar av simhall har simulerats för att undersöka skillnaden. Resultaten är grundläggande för slutsatsen. Parametrar som efterklangstid, ljudtrycksnivå, taluppfattbarhet med mera är undersökta tillsammans med den subjektiva upplevelsen av ljudmiljön i simhallar.
Studien presenterar resultat som visar på att de rekommenderade efterklangstiderna uppnås för nya simhallar med absorbenter i tak och på väggar. Att luta en vägg visar sig vara en förbättring. Bakgrundsnivån är en del av problemet och att reducera detta är en viktig del av lösningen för att uppnå god ljudmiljö. Taluppfattbarhet är viktigt för säkerhetsaspekten och resultaten visar att det är svårt att uppnå en tillräckligt god nivå. Besökarna är nöjda med ljudmiljön men de anställda är utsatta för en arbetsmiljö som behöver förbättring.
Föreslagna lösningar är framför allt absorbenter, låg takhöjd och en lutade vägg. Inlärnings-situationen kan förbättras med avskärmning och vatten som ljudkälla bör studeras vidare. Skvalprännorna ger till exempel upphov till höga bakgrundsnivåer och tystare lösningar skulle förbättra ljudmiljön och reducera risken att besökarna höjer rösten för att överrösta och på så sätt ökar ljudnivån ytterligare.
Verktygen för att uppnå detta är att tillfråga en akustiker tidigt i projektet. När akustiska lösningar kan föreslås innan utformningen är bestämd kommer utfallet bli bättre och kostnaden lägre. Då undviks också risken för behov av senare åtgärder. De som arbetar med simhallsprojektet bör ha erfarenhet från tidigare simhallar och dela denna för bästa resultat. Samarbete mellan akustiker och arkitekter skapar bättre lösningar och minskar risken för att oönskade kompromisser uppstår. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Swimming halls are large spaces with hard surfaces. This creates a loud environment with bouncing sound waves. Improvements for a more comfortable sound environment exist but may be difficult to apply. The study investigates possible solutions and the way acoustics is included in the project.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hall, Malin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Akustisk utformning av simhallar
course
VTA820 20161
year
type
M3 - Professional qualifications ( - 4 Years)
subject
keywords
Acoustics, Swimming halls, Sound, The ear, Hearing capacity, Pshyco acoustics, Reverberation time, Speech intelligibility, Decibel, Hearing impairement, Frequency, Room acoustics
publication/series
TVBA-5000
report number
TVBA-5048
ISSN
0281-8477
language
English
id
8888064
alternative location
http://www.akustik.lth.se/fileadmin/tekniskakustik/publications/tvba5000/webTVBA5048.pdf
date added to LUP
2016-08-11 17:27:33
date last changed
2017-04-26 17:09:53
@misc{8888064,
  abstract     = {The Master thesis considers acoustic design of swimming halls. Focus is put into design solutions affecting the acoustic environment such as walls, absorbents and shape. The basis is gained from literature studies and new information achieved specific for the thesis. 
Swimming halls are built in a certain way that makes a good acoustic environment hard to achieve. The construction consists of hard surfaces and with large volume which creates a loud environment with lot of echoes. The safety aspect may be harmed by this and it can also cause health problems. 
The problem is that acoustic solutions are difficult to apply to swimming halls due to climate and function demands, for example the lower parts of the walls being exposed to water and contact. One problem is that acousticians are consulted at a later stage in the project where available solutions are more limited. The acoustic influence is getting more prioritized nowadays which is important in order to achieve a desired acoustic environment. 
During the thesis persons with great expertise in areas regarding construction of swimming halls, both acousticians and other professionals, are interviewed. Visitors and employees in swimming halls have been consulted with questionnaires and the subjective part of acoustics is gained. Measurements in Hylliebadet in Malmö have been performed as well as simulations of a swimming hall in two versions. Parameters such as reverberation time, sound pressure level, speech intelligibility etc. are investigated as well as the subjective opinion on the acoustic environment in swimming halls. 
The study presents results showing that the recommended reverberation time is achieved for new swimming halls with absorbents placed on the ceiling and on the walls. It also shows that the acoustic environment is improved by tilting a wall. The background noise is a part of the problem and to reduce this is an important aspect. The speech intelligibility is important for safety reasons and a sufficient level seems hard to achieve. The visitors are satisfied with the environment but the employees are exposed to a work environment that needs to be improved. 
Solutions suggested are primarily an addition of absorbents, lower ceiling height and one tilted wall. Screens may be useful for educational purposes and water as a sound source should be further investigated. Drains for example causes high background noise and more quiet solutions would improve the acoustic environment and reduce the risk that visitors speak even louder, which creates even more sound. 
The tools to achieve this are to include an acoustician in the early stage of the project. When acoustic solutions can be suggested before the design is determined the outcome is better and the cost lower. It also avoids the risk for later alterations. The team working with the swimming hall project should have experience from swimming halls and share this. Collaboration between acousticians and architects creates better solutions and reduces the risk for undesired compromises.},
  author       = {Hall, Malin},
  issn         = {0281-8477},
  keyword      = {Acoustics,Swimming halls,Sound,The ear,Hearing capacity,Pshyco acoustics,Reverberation time,Speech intelligibility,Decibel,Hearing impairement,Frequency,Room acoustics},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {TVBA-5000},
  title        = {Acoustic Design of Swimming Halls},
  year         = {2016},
}