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En studie av hur risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor beaktas i den kommunala översiktsplaneprocessen

Paulsson, Jens LU (2016) VBR920 20161
Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety
Risk Management and Safety Engineering (M.Sc.Eng.)
Abstract (Swedish)
Det finns ett behov av en helhetssyn på risksituationen i samhället för att långsiktig hållbarhet ska kunna skapas. Översiktsplanen är det första steget i den fysiska planeringen och behandlar hela kommunens geografiska område. Således är det också det första steget där riskhänsyn kan tas. Målet med detta examensarbete har därför varit att studera hur risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor beaktas i den kommunala översiktsplaneprocessen. Detta mål gav upphov till följande frågeställningar:

• Hur beaktas risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor i översiktsplaneprocessen i fem skånska kommuner?
• Hur kan översiktsplaneprocessen utformas för att på ett bättre sätt ta hänsyn till risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor?

För att besvara dessa frågeställningar genomfördes en... (More)
Det finns ett behov av en helhetssyn på risksituationen i samhället för att långsiktig hållbarhet ska kunna skapas. Översiktsplanen är det första steget i den fysiska planeringen och behandlar hela kommunens geografiska område. Således är det också det första steget där riskhänsyn kan tas. Målet med detta examensarbete har därför varit att studera hur risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor beaktas i den kommunala översiktsplaneprocessen. Detta mål gav upphov till följande frågeställningar:

• Hur beaktas risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor i översiktsplaneprocessen i fem skånska kommuner?
• Hur kan översiktsplaneprocessen utformas för att på ett bättre sätt ta hänsyn till risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor?

För att besvara dessa frågeställningar genomfördes en litteraturstudie och intervjustudie. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att inhämta kunskap om hur översiktsplaneprocessen fungerar i Sverige, samt hur riskhänsyn ska tas i processen. Intervjustudien avsåg sedan att komplettera denna information och gå in mer på djupet angående hur risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor i själva verket beaktas i översiktsplaneringen. På grund av examensarbetets begränsade omfattning genomfördes denna intervjustudie i fem skånska kommuner.

Samtliga respondenter förklarade att det inte bedrivs någon systematisk riskhanteringsprocess i översiktsplaneprocessen, utan att sunt förnuft används vid avvägningar mellan risker och andra samhällsintressen. De kommunala tjänstemännen berättade även att riskhänsyn ofta skjuts upp till efterföljande planeringsstadier då planförslaget konkretiserats. Respondenterna berättar att översiktsplanering bygger på diskussioner med olika aktörer i samhället som kan bidra med sin sakkunskap och sina åsikter kring översiktsplanen. Det finns dock ingen vägledning för vilka aktörer som bör ingå i översiktsplaneringen, utan det är upp till de tjänstemän som ingår den i arbetsgrupp som ansvarar för översiktsplanen att kontakta de aktörer som de anser har något att tillföra. De slutgiltiga besluten för vad som ska ingå i översiktsplanen görs även av denna arbetsgrupp. Samtliga respondenter medgav att ingen hade det övergripande ansvaret för riskhänsynen, utan att man förväntar sig att aktörer med sakkunskap och intresse för det berörda området lyfter frågan i samråden.

I detta examensarbete föreslås upprättande av en riskpolicy i översiktsplaneprocessen för att skapa ett förhållningssätt till hur riskbeaktande ska göras i efterföljande planprocesser. En riskhanteringsprocess föreslås även i examensarbetet som kan användas för att upprätta riskpolicyn. Målet är att riskpolicyn ska implementeras som ett tematiskt tillägg i översiktsplanen för att bland annat åskådliggöra riskerna i samhället, samt de konsekvenser översiktsplanen kan leda till i framtiden. (Less)
Abstract
There is a need for a more holistic perspective on societal risks in order to achieve sustainability in a long-term perspective. The municipal comprehensive plan is the first step in urban planning, and covers all of the municipal’s geographical area. Consequently, it is also the first step where a risk assessment can be conducted. The objective of this report has therefore been to study how risk and vulnerability aspects are regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan. The following research questions were developed to achieve the objective:

• How are risk- and vulnerability aspects regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan in five municipalities in Skåne?
• How can the... (More)
There is a need for a more holistic perspective on societal risks in order to achieve sustainability in a long-term perspective. The municipal comprehensive plan is the first step in urban planning, and covers all of the municipal’s geographical area. Consequently, it is also the first step where a risk assessment can be conducted. The objective of this report has therefore been to study how risk and vulnerability aspects are regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan. The following research questions were developed to achieve the objective:

• How are risk- and vulnerability aspects regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan in five municipalities in Skåne?
• How can the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan be designed to in a better way take into account risk and vulnerability aspects?

In order to answer the research questions, a literature review and an interview study were conducted. The purpose of the literature review was to gather information about how the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan is accomplished in Sweden, as well as how risks are regarded in the process. The intension of the interview study was then to find out more about how risk and vulnerability aspects truly are managed and then compare it with the information from the literature review. Due to the report’s time-limit, five municipalities from Skåne were chosen for the interview study.

All respondents admitted that no systematic risk management process is conducted in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan, but rather that common sense is used in the tradeoff between risks and other societal interests. The civil servants explained that risk assessments often are postponed and dealt with in forthcoming planning phases where the planning proposal has been elaborated further. The respondents also describe that the municipal comprehensive plan is based on discussions between different actors in the society who share their knowledge and opinions on how the society should develop. Despite this, no guideline exists that discloses which actors that should take part in the process. Hence, it is up to the group of civil servants, responsible for the municipal comprehensive plan, to decide who should participate in the process. The final decision regarding what should be included in the municipal comprehensive plan are also decided by this group, and consequently, the tradeoffs between risks and other societal interests. All respondents admitted that no one has the overarching responsibility for the risks, but that they rather expect other actors, with more expertise, to raise the question when needed.

In this report, it is suggested that a risk policy is establish in the municipal comprehensive planning process to in a better way manage risks in the forthcoming planning phases. In order to to create the risk policy, a risk management process is presented. The objective is to implement the risk policy as a thematic addition in the municipal comprehensive plan to clarify the risks in the society as well as showing the future consequences of the municipal comprehensive plan. (Less)
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author
Paulsson, Jens LU
supervisor
organization
course
VBR920 20161
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
vulnerability, resilience, process, Kommun, resiliens, risk, riskhänsyn, sårbarhet, översiktsplan, översiktsplaneprocess Municipality, municipal comprehensive plan
report number
5026
other publication id
LUTVDG/TVRH--5026—SE
language
Swedish
id
8888086
date added to LUP
2016-08-22 13:36:38
date last changed
2016-08-22 13:36:38
@misc{8888086,
  abstract     = {There is a need for a more holistic perspective on societal risks in order to achieve sustainability in a long-term perspective. The municipal comprehensive plan is the first step in urban planning, and covers all of the municipal’s geographical area. Consequently, it is also the first step where a risk assessment can be conducted. The objective of this report has therefore been to study how risk and vulnerability aspects are regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan. The following research questions were developed to achieve the objective:

•	How are risk- and vulnerability aspects regarded in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan in five municipalities in Skåne?
•	How can the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan be designed to in a better way take into account risk and vulnerability aspects?

In order to answer the research questions, a literature review and an interview study were conducted. The purpose of the literature review was to gather information about how the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan is accomplished in Sweden, as well as how risks are regarded in the process. The intension of the interview study was then to find out more about how risk and vulnerability aspects truly are managed and then compare it with the information from the literature review. Due to the report’s time-limit, five municipalities from Skåne were chosen for the interview study. 

All respondents admitted that no systematic risk management process is conducted in the process of establishing the municipal comprehensive plan, but rather that common sense is used in the tradeoff between risks and other societal interests. The civil servants explained that risk assessments often are postponed and dealt with in forthcoming planning phases where the planning proposal has been elaborated further. The respondents also describe that the municipal comprehensive plan is based on discussions between different actors in the society who share their knowledge and opinions on how the society should develop. Despite this, no guideline exists that discloses which actors that should take part in the process. Hence, it is up to the group of civil servants, responsible for the municipal comprehensive plan, to decide who should participate in the process. The final decision regarding what should be included in the municipal comprehensive plan are also decided by this group, and consequently, the tradeoffs between risks and other societal interests. All respondents admitted that no one has the overarching responsibility for the risks, but that they rather expect other actors, with more expertise, to raise the question when needed.

In this report, it is suggested that a risk policy is establish in the municipal comprehensive planning process to in a better way manage risks in the forthcoming planning phases. In order to to create the risk policy, a risk management process is presented. The objective is to implement the risk policy as a thematic addition in the municipal comprehensive plan to clarify the risks in the society as well as showing the future consequences of the municipal comprehensive plan.},
  author       = {Paulsson, Jens},
  keyword      = {vulnerability,resilience,process,Kommun,resiliens,risk,riskhänsyn,sårbarhet,översiktsplan,översiktsplaneprocess Municipality,municipal comprehensive plan},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En studie av hur risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor beaktas i den kommunala översiktsplaneprocessen},
  year         = {2016},
}