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Social offentlig upphandling – Medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme att ställa sociala krav i offentlig upphandling med fokus på utstationeringssituationer

Gratte, Anna Maria LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme att ställa sociala krav i offentlig upphandling ur ett inremarknadsperspektiv. Uppsatsen syftar särskilt till att utreda handlingsutrymmet vid utstationeringssituationer. Med sociala krav avses i uppsatsen främst sådana villkor som ska uppfyllas vid kontraktets fullgörande. Relevanta rättskällor är främst de primärrättsliga bestämmelserna som reglerar fri rörlighet för tjänster, direktiv 2014/24/EU som reglerar upphandlingsprocessen på den klassiska sektorn, direktiv 96/71/EG om utstationering av arbetstagare samt EU-domstolens rättspraxis på området. Eftersom bestämmelserna i det nya direktivet ännu inte har varit föremål för prövning i domstolen, är den rättspraxis som... (More)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme att ställa sociala krav i offentlig upphandling ur ett inremarknadsperspektiv. Uppsatsen syftar särskilt till att utreda handlingsutrymmet vid utstationeringssituationer. Med sociala krav avses i uppsatsen främst sådana villkor som ska uppfyllas vid kontraktets fullgörande. Relevanta rättskällor är främst de primärrättsliga bestämmelserna som reglerar fri rörlighet för tjänster, direktiv 2014/24/EU som reglerar upphandlingsprocessen på den klassiska sektorn, direktiv 96/71/EG om utstationering av arbetstagare samt EU-domstolens rättspraxis på området. Eftersom bestämmelserna i det nya direktivet ännu inte har varit föremål för prövning i domstolen, är den rättspraxis som presenteras baserad på tidigare upphandlingsdirektiv.

Offentlig upphandling omfattas av det primärrättsliga regelverket kring fri rörlighet för varor och tjänster. Den upphandlande myndigheten ska som utgångspunkt ses som en integrerad del av medlemsstaten. Därmed ska upphandlingen ske i förenlighet med friheterna på den inre marknaden och de grundläggande EU-rättsliga principerna, särskild den om icke-diskriminering. I den juridiska doktrinen råder det dock delade meningar om den upphandlande myndighetens roll som marknadsaktör respektive marknadsreglerare. Detta kan få betydelse för frågan hur myndighetens agerande ska bedömas då den ställer sociala krav i offentlig upphandling. Enligt inremarknadsperspektivet ska krav som är potentiellt samhandelshindrande dels vara motiverade av tvingande hänsyn, dels vara proportionerliga för att tillåtas. Sedan Lissabonfördragets ikraftträdande gäller att EU ska vara en social marknadsekonomi med hög konkurrenskraft. Enligt viss doktrin ger de primärrättsliga bestämmelserna numera uttryck för att icke-ekonomiska intressen har samma rättsliga värde som ekonomiska. Detta kan få betydelse för EU-domstolens framtida prövning av medlemsstaternas utrymme att ställa sociala krav.

Det nya upphandlingsdirektivet, som antogs 2014, tillåter medlemsstaterna att upphandla strategiskt. Detta innebär att medlemsstaterna uppmanas att integrera sociala hänsyn i upphandlingsprocessen, under förutsättning att det är lämpligt. Antagandet av det nya direktivet präglades dock av oenigheter, mellan såväl EU:s institutioner som medlemsstaternas regeringar. Detta märks av t.ex. vad gäller bristen på obligatoriska bestämmelser avseende sociala hänsyn. Ytterligare en nyhet i direktivet är att konkurrensprincipen har kodifierats. Enligt viss doktrin ger detta uttryck för att fri rörlighet och en effektiv konkurrens på den inre marknaden fortfarande är de primära målsättningarna vid offentlig upphandling.

Slutligen utreds frågan vad gäller medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme att ställa sociala krav, t.ex. att leverantören ska betala sina anställda en viss minimilön, när det offentliga kontraktet kan komma att utföras av utstationerad arbetskraft. Enligt EU-domstolens rättspraxis begränsas i princip handlingsutrymmet av utstationeringsdirektivets hårda kärna. Åtgärder som går utöver dessa rättigheter anses strida mot den fria rörligheten. Av EU-domstolens nyligen meddelade avgörande i mål C-115/14, RegioPost, framkommer att krav på en viss minimilön kan motiveras av målet att skydda arbetstagare och undvika social dumpning. Detta gäller även då den nationella åtgärden endast omfattar arbetstagare inom den offentliga sektorn. Därmed har domstolen gjort avsteg från tidigare uttalanden i mål C-346/06, Rüffert. Vilka följder RegioPost kan få för den framtida rättsutvecklingen återstår att se. Detta gäller inte minst vid EU-domstolens tolkning av bestämmelserna i direktiv 2014/24/EU mot bakgrund av EU:s och medlemsstaternas sociala målsättningar. (Less)
Abstract
This paper aims to assess the scope of discretion of the Member States to include social considerations in EU public procurement law. Furthermore, the aim is to assess the discretion when the public contract may be carried out by posted workers. In this paper, social considerations will mainly refer to those concerning the performance stage, where contractors may be obliged to follow certain social standards. Relevant legal sources are the primary law governing the free movement of services, Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement, Directive 96/71/EC concerning the posting of workers and the case-law from the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Since the relevant provisions of the new public sector Directive have not yet been subject to... (More)
This paper aims to assess the scope of discretion of the Member States to include social considerations in EU public procurement law. Furthermore, the aim is to assess the discretion when the public contract may be carried out by posted workers. In this paper, social considerations will mainly refer to those concerning the performance stage, where contractors may be obliged to follow certain social standards. Relevant legal sources are the primary law governing the free movement of services, Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement, Directive 96/71/EC concerning the posting of workers and the case-law from the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Since the relevant provisions of the new public sector Directive have not yet been subject to trial, the case-law presented is based on the previous Directives.

The performance of public procurement is covered by the Treaty provisions governing the free movement of goods and services. According to some legal doctrine, the contracting authority shall be seen as an integral part of the Member State. Thus, the awarding of public contracts must be in compliance with the freedoms of the internal market and the general principles of EU law, in particular the principle of non-discrimination. However, there are different views in the legal doctrine on the contracting authority’s role as a market player versus market regulator. This may have implications for the possibility to include social considerations in public contracts. According to the so-called internal market perspective, such national measures may be justified by overriding requirements of public interest. However, they must be appropriate for securing the objective and they must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain the national goal. Since the entering into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union aims for a highly competitive social market economy. According to some legal scholars, the primary law now proposes, and indeed mandates, a balance between its economic and non-economic policies. This may affect the ECJ’s future interpretation of the discretion of the Member States to include social considerations.

The new public sector Directive, adopted in 2014, clarifies that strategic use of public procurement is permissible. The Member States are encouraged to take appropriate measures to integrate social considerations in the procurement process. However, the adoption of the Directive was subject of long negotiations between the European Parliament and the Council. According to some legal scholars, this may be one of the reasons why the relevant provisions contain few concrete obligations concerning social considerations. Furthermore, it has been argued that the codification of the principle of competition is the major novelty in the Directive. This would imply that the principal objectives of the European Union public procurement law are still mainly to secure the proper functioning of the internal market and to ensure effective competition.

According to the case-law of the ECJ, the Posted Workers Directive and the freedom to provide services preclude social requirements that go beyond those compatible with their provisions. In Case C-115/14, RegioPost, the ECJ recently held that conditions requiring contractors to respect a certain minimum wage may be justified by the objective of protecting workers and prevent social dumping. The ruling states that this applies even when the national measure applies solely to public contracts. Thus, the ECJ seems to have deviated from its previous conclusions in Case C-346/06, Rüffert. It remains to be seen how RegioPost will affect future developments in the case-law of the ECJ. This applies in particular when interpreting the provisions of provisions of Directive 2014/24/EU in light of the social goals of the European Union and the Member States. (Less)
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author
Gratte, Anna Maria LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Social Public Procurement - The scope of discretion of the Member States to include social considerations in EU public procurement law, especially when posted workers may carry out the public contract
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Arbetsrätt, EU-rätt, Statsrätt, Utrikeshandelsrätt
language
Swedish
id
8888118
date added to LUP
2016-09-05 16:38:00
date last changed
2016-09-05 16:38:00
@misc{8888118,
  abstract     = {This paper aims to assess the scope of discretion of the Member States to include social considerations in EU public procurement law. Furthermore, the aim is to assess the discretion when the public contract may be carried out by posted workers. In this paper, social considerations will mainly refer to those concerning the performance stage, where contractors may be obliged to follow certain social standards. Relevant legal sources are the primary law governing the free movement of services, Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement, Directive 96/71/EC concerning the posting of workers and the case-law from the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Since the relevant provisions of the new public sector Directive have not yet been subject to trial, the case-law presented is based on the previous Directives.

The performance of public procurement is covered by the Treaty provisions governing the free movement of goods and services. According to some legal doctrine, the contracting authority shall be seen as an integral part of the Member State. Thus, the awarding of public contracts must be in compliance with the freedoms of the internal market and the general principles of EU law, in particular the principle of non-discrimination. However, there are different views in the legal doctrine on the contracting authority’s role as a market player versus market regulator. This may have implications for the possibility to include social considerations in public contracts. According to the so-called internal market perspective, such national measures may be justified by overriding requirements of public interest. However, they must be appropriate for securing the objective and they must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain the national goal. Since the entering into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Union aims for a highly competitive social market economy. According to some legal scholars, the primary law now proposes, and indeed mandates, a balance between its economic and non-economic policies. This may affect the ECJ’s future interpretation of the discretion of the Member States to include social considerations.

The new public sector Directive, adopted in 2014, clarifies that strategic use of public procurement is permissible. The Member States are encouraged to take appropriate measures to integrate social considerations in the procurement process. However, the adoption of the Directive was subject of long negotiations between the European Parliament and the Council. According to some legal scholars, this may be one of the reasons why the relevant provisions contain few concrete obligations concerning social considerations. Furthermore, it has been argued that the codification of the principle of competition is the major novelty in the Directive. This would imply that the principal objectives of the European Union public procurement law are still mainly to secure the proper functioning of the internal market and to ensure effective competition.

According to the case-law of the ECJ, the Posted Workers Directive and the freedom to provide services preclude social requirements that go beyond those compatible with their provisions. In Case C-115/14, RegioPost, the ECJ recently held that conditions requiring contractors to respect a certain minimum wage may be justified by the objective of protecting workers and prevent social dumping. The ruling states that this applies even when the national measure applies solely to public contracts. Thus, the ECJ seems to have deviated from its previous conclusions in Case C-346/06, Rüffert. It remains to be seen how RegioPost will affect future developments in the case-law of the ECJ. This applies in particular when interpreting the provisions of provisions of Directive 2014/24/EU in light of the social goals of the European Union and the Member States.},
  author       = {Gratte, Anna Maria},
  keyword      = {Arbetsrätt,EU-rätt,Statsrätt,Utrikeshandelsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Social offentlig upphandling – Medlemsstaternas handlingsutrymme att ställa sociala krav i offentlig upphandling med fokus på utstationeringssituationer},
  year         = {2016},
}