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Överprövning i mål om offentlig upphandling - Problematik, konsekvenser och potentiella lösningar

Billinger, Stina LU (2016) JURM02 20161
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med offentlig upphandling är att tillvarata konkurrensen på marknaden och på så sätt öka effektiviteten i de offentliga utgifterna. Den offentliga upphandlingen omsätter mellan 550-600 miljarder kronor per år. Med denna omsättning utgör upphandling en betydande del av Sveriges BNP och har en direkt påverkan på vårt lands ekonomi. För att offentlig upphandling ska få fullt genomslag krävs dock en välfungerande överprövningsprocess.

I Sverige överprövas ca 7,6 procent av alla upphandlingar, vilket gör oss till det landet som har flest överprövningar i hela EU. Enligt Upphandlingsutredningen finns det ett antal faktorer som kan tänkas påverka huruvida det blir en överprövning eller inte. En av dessa är upphandlingssituationen där... (More)
Syftet med offentlig upphandling är att tillvarata konkurrensen på marknaden och på så sätt öka effektiviteten i de offentliga utgifterna. Den offentliga upphandlingen omsätter mellan 550-600 miljarder kronor per år. Med denna omsättning utgör upphandling en betydande del av Sveriges BNP och har en direkt påverkan på vårt lands ekonomi. För att offentlig upphandling ska få fullt genomslag krävs dock en välfungerande överprövningsprocess.

I Sverige överprövas ca 7,6 procent av alla upphandlingar, vilket gör oss till det landet som har flest överprövningar i hela EU. Enligt Upphandlingsutredningen finns det ett antal faktorer som kan tänkas påverka huruvida det blir en överprövning eller inte. En av dessa är upphandlingssituationen där brist på kompetens hos den upphandlande myndigheten är en framträdande orsak till överprövning. Även brist på kommunikation och dialog mellan den upphandlande myndigheten och leverantören anses vara en påverkande faktor. Möjlighet till kommunikation och dialog kommer öka i och med den nya lagstiftningen på området. Enligt de upphandlande myndigheterna själva är det dock leverantörernas attityder som ligger till grund för stor del av överprövningarna. Av de mål som prövades under 2014 dömdes det i 75 procent till fördel för den upphandlande myndigheten. Detta kan vara en indikation på okynnesöverprövningar eller diverse överprövningskulturer.

Problemet ligger dock inte i mängden överprövningar utan de negativa konsekvenser dessa leder till för den upphandlande myndigheten. Exempel på detta är långa och ovissa handläggningstider som medför att den upphandlande myndigheten tvingas stå avtalslös under långa perioder. En genomsnittlig handläggningstid år 2014 var 2,2 månader, denna ökar dock för varje år. Avtalslöshet leder till svårigheter för den upphandlande myndigheten att tillhandahålla de varor och tjänster som denna är skyldig att tillhandahålla medborgarna t.ex. vaccin, skolskjutsar och skolmat. På grund av detta blir ofta den upphandlande myndigheten tvungen att genomföra en direktupphandling för att täcka behovet under pågående handläggning. Då direktupphandling ofta är otillåten riskerar också denna upphandling att bli stoppad i en ny överprövning eller föremål för talan om ogiltighet. Även avsaknaden av en preklusionsfrist riskerar att leda till ökande kostnader och således även ökade negativa konsekvenser för den upphandlande myndigheten. Sverige är ett av få länder i EU som valt att inte lagstifta om preklusionsfrist.

Ett antal utredningar har fått i uppdrag att undersöka potentiella lösningar på dessa problem. Resultatet visar att fokus bör ligga på att minska den negativa konsekvensen av en överprövningsprocess istället för att minska incitamenten att begära överprövning. Trotts detta samt diverse påtryckningar och synpunkter att dessa regler bör ses över kommer det inte ske några förändringar gällande reglerna om rättsmedel kopplade till offentlig upphandling i den nya lagstiftningen. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose with a public procurement is to capture the competion on the market and with that increase the effeciency of the public spending. The public procurement turnover is between 550-600 billion SEK per year. With this turnover the procurement makes a significant part of Swedens GNP and has a direct impact on our countries economy. How ever, for a public procurement to have full effect it needs a fully functioning reviewing process.

In Sweden approxomatly 7,6 percent of all procurements are to be reviewed which makes us the country which has the most reviwed procurements in the entire EU. According to the Procurement Committee there is a number of factors that can affect wether there is a review or not. One of these factors is the... (More)
The purpose with a public procurement is to capture the competion on the market and with that increase the effeciency of the public spending. The public procurement turnover is between 550-600 billion SEK per year. With this turnover the procurement makes a significant part of Swedens GNP and has a direct impact on our countries economy. How ever, for a public procurement to have full effect it needs a fully functioning reviewing process.

In Sweden approxomatly 7,6 percent of all procurements are to be reviewed which makes us the country which has the most reviwed procurements in the entire EU. According to the Procurement Committee there is a number of factors that can affect wether there is a review or not. One of these factors is the procurement situation where lack of competens within the procured authority is a prominent cause for the review. Lack of communication and dialog between the procured authority and the suppliers is also considered as a factor. The possibility for communication and a dialog will increase with the new legislation for the area. According to the procured authorities themselves it is, how ever, the suppliers attitudes that is the foundation to a large part of the reviews. Out of the cases that were procured during 2014, 75 percent were sentenced in advantage for the procured authority. This can be an indication of mischief of trials or various appellate cultures.

The problem how ever, is not in the amount of procurements but in the negative consequenses these lead to for the procured authority. An example of this is long and uncertain processing times which forces the procured authority to be without an agreement for long periods of time. An avarage processing time during 2014 was 2,2 moths, this how ever increases as each year pass. Being with out an agreement leads to difficulties for the procured authority to provide the merchandise and services which they are required to give the citizens such as vaccines, school rides and school lunches. Because of this the procutred authority is often forced to go through a directprocurement to cover the demands during an ongoing procurement. Since a directprocurement usually is not allowed, the ongoing procurent is in risk of being stopped. The lack of preclusive is also a risk which can lead to increased expenses and so forth also negative consequenses for the procured authority. Sweden is one of the few countries in the EU that has chpsen to not make a law about preclusive.

A number of investigations has been given the mission to investigate potential solutions for these problems. The results shows that the focus should be to decrease the negative consequense of a reviewing process instead of decreasing the incentives to demand a procurement. Despite this, along with pressure and comments that these rules should be reviewed, there will be no changes to the rules of remedies connected to public procurments in the new legislation. (Less)
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author
Billinger, Stina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Appeal in cases regarding public procurement - problems, consequences and potential solutions
course
JURM02 20161
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
EU-rätt, Offentlig upphandling
language
Swedish
id
8888225
date added to LUP
2016-09-06 09:32:37
date last changed
2016-09-06 09:32:37
@misc{8888225,
  abstract     = {The purpose with a public procurement is to capture the competion on the market and with that increase the effeciency of the public spending. The public procurement turnover is between 550-600 billion SEK per year. With this turnover the procurement makes a significant part of Swedens GNP and has a direct impact on our countries economy. How ever, for a public procurement to have full effect it needs a fully functioning reviewing process.

In Sweden approxomatly 7,6 percent of all procurements are to be reviewed which makes us the country which has the most reviwed procurements in the entire EU. According to the Procurement Committee there is a number of factors that can affect wether there is a review or not. One of these factors is the procurement situation where lack of competens within the procured authority is a prominent cause for the review. Lack of communication and dialog between the procured authority and the suppliers is also considered as a factor. The possibility for communication and a dialog will increase with the new legislation for the area. According to the procured authorities themselves it is, how ever, the suppliers attitudes that is the foundation to a large part of the reviews. Out of the cases that were procured during 2014, 75 percent were sentenced in advantage for the procured authority. This can be an indication of mischief of trials or various appellate cultures.

The problem how ever, is not in the amount of procurements but in the negative consequenses these lead to for the procured authority. An example of this is long and uncertain processing times which forces the procured authority to be without an agreement for long periods of time. An avarage processing time during 2014 was 2,2 moths, this how ever increases as each year pass. Being with out an agreement leads to difficulties for the procured authority to provide the merchandise and services which they are required to give the citizens such as vaccines, school rides and school lunches. Because of this the procutred authority is often forced to go through a directprocurement to cover the demands during an ongoing procurement. Since a directprocurement usually is not allowed, the ongoing procurent is in risk of being stopped. The lack of preclusive is also a risk which can lead to increased expenses and so forth also negative consequenses for the procured authority. Sweden is one of the few countries in the EU that has chpsen to not make a law about preclusive.

A number of investigations has been given the mission to investigate potential solutions for these problems. The results shows that the focus should be to decrease the negative consequense of a reviewing process instead of decreasing the incentives to demand a procurement. Despite this, along with pressure and comments that these rules should be reviewed, there will be no changes to the rules of remedies connected to public procurments in the new legislation.},
  author       = {Billinger, Stina},
  keyword      = {EU-rätt,Offentlig upphandling},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Överprövning i mål om offentlig upphandling - Problematik, konsekvenser och potentiella lösningar},
  year         = {2016},
}