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Using multi-criteria evaluation and GIS for chronic food and nutrition insecurity indicators analysis in Ethiopia

Amato, Mathewos Tamiru (2016) In Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science GISM01 20161
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
The actual concept of food security focuses on four food security dimensions: food availability, food access, food utilization and food stability of which eight indicators were identified for this study. The study aims to evaluate vulnerability to chronic food and nutrition insecurity, one of the food stability types, in Ethiopia; and examines the relationship between four food security dimensions and stunting of children under age five. In addition, the study evaluates if there are inclusion and exclusion errors in the number of districts receiving assistance under the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) and identifies a food security dimension related to child undernourishment.
Basic data on eight indicators were collected at district... (More)
The actual concept of food security focuses on four food security dimensions: food availability, food access, food utilization and food stability of which eight indicators were identified for this study. The study aims to evaluate vulnerability to chronic food and nutrition insecurity, one of the food stability types, in Ethiopia; and examines the relationship between four food security dimensions and stunting of children under age five. In addition, the study evaluates if there are inclusion and exclusion errors in the number of districts receiving assistance under the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) and identifies a food security dimension related to child undernourishment.
Basic data on eight indicators were collected at district level from different sources and analyzed using the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method to identify areas of concern. In addition to WLC method, a person product-moment correlation coefficient in SPSS was conducted to evaluate the relationship between under nutrition and food security dimensions.
The study findings indicated that northern, north eastern, southern and south eastern, and pocket areas in remaining parts of the country have relatively persistent chronic food and nutrition insecurity. Most of these districts have limited number of clusters of stunted and non-stunted children and as a result there is week correlation between food security dimension indicators and stunting. Most of high chronic food and nutrition insecure districts overlapped with PSNP implemented districts. Based on the study findings, in total 37 districts, which were shown up to be food and nutrition insecure were excluded, while 10 districts, which do not result as food insecure were included as a beneficiary of PSNP.
Based on the results, the study provides recommendations to policy makers on the areas in Ethiopia that would need a better assistance under the PSNP and relief food assistance. (Less)
Popular Abstract
The actual concept of food security focuses on four food security dimensions: food availability, food access, food utilization and food stability of which eight indicators were identified for this study. The study aims to evaluate vulnerability to chronic food and nutrition insecurity, one of the food stability types, in Ethiopia with a focus of spatial dimensions of food and nutrition insecurity. It also examines the relationship between four food security dimensions and stunting of children under age five. In addition, the study evaluates if there are inclusion and exclusion errors in the number of districts receiving assistance under the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) and identifies a food security dimension related to child... (More)
The actual concept of food security focuses on four food security dimensions: food availability, food access, food utilization and food stability of which eight indicators were identified for this study. The study aims to evaluate vulnerability to chronic food and nutrition insecurity, one of the food stability types, in Ethiopia with a focus of spatial dimensions of food and nutrition insecurity. It also examines the relationship between four food security dimensions and stunting of children under age five. In addition, the study evaluates if there are inclusion and exclusion errors in the number of districts receiving assistance under the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) and identifies a food security dimension related to child undernourishment.
Basic data on eight indicators were collected at district level from different sources namely, National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA), Central Statistical Authority (CSA), Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Sector (DRMFSS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS).
Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method applying equal weights approach was used because of limitations of standardized weights for each indicator from previous studies. The eight indicators were scaled to (0, 1) ranges using Linear Scale Transformation (LST) to create dimension level maps and the final composite chronic food and nutrition insecurity map. In addition to WLC method, a person product-moment correlation coefficient in SPSS was conducted to evaluate the relationship between under nutrition and food security dimensions.
The MCE WLC method results indicated that northern, north eastern, southern and south eastern, and pocket areas in the remaining parts of the country have relatively persistent chronic food and nutrition insecurity. This is also true for combined indicators in each food security dimensions. Most of the affected districts have limited number of stunting cluster data. As a result, there were weak relationships between combined indicators in each food security dimension and stunted children. This suggests that it would be essential to expand the collection of data on stunted children to these areas. However, strong significant relationships were observed among combined indicators in each food security dimension such as food availability and food utilization; food availability and food access, food availability and acute food insecurity. Districts with stunted clusters vary from one food security dimension to another confirming that tackling children under nutrition requires addressing all food security dimensions. Similarly, rain gauge density to measure rainfall variability over south eastern parts of the country is sparse and almost nonexistent that requires expansion of rain gauge sites in those areas. Most of high chronic food and nutrition insecure districts from this study overlapped with PSNP implemented districts. Based on the study findings, in total 37 districts of which 18 in Somali, 7 in Gambella, 7 in Oromia, 2 in Beneshangul-Gumuz, 2 in SNNP and 1 in Afar regions, which were shown up to be food and nutrition insecure were excluded, while 10 districts, which do not result as food insecure were included as a beneficiary of PSNP that may help to revisit identification of PSNP districts.
To target emergency and development interventions in those chronic food and nutrition insecure districts, indicator specific intervention would improve the effects of food and nutrition insecurity; for example, rainfall variability map would help in planning where water shortage and other drought alleviation projects are immediately needed; Maps depicting road or clean drinking water accessibility are important for an organization planning infrastructure development; Map depicting adult female illiteracy rates would help an organization to take responsibility to improve adult female illiteracy rates, etc. by doing so food and nutrition insecurity will be addressed fairly in the country. (Less)
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author
Amato, Mathewos Tamiru
supervisor
organization
course
GISM01 20161
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
multi-criteria evaluation, food and nutrition insecurity indicators, food security dimensions, Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, GIS, districts, Ethiopia
publication/series
Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science
report number
59
language
English
id
8893886
date added to LUP
2016-10-25 12:41:47
date last changed
2016-10-25 12:50:21
@misc{8893886,
  abstract     = {The actual concept of food security focuses on four food security dimensions: food availability, food access, food utilization and food stability of which eight indicators were identified for this study. The study aims to evaluate vulnerability to chronic food and nutrition insecurity, one of the food stability types, in Ethiopia; and examines the relationship between four food security dimensions and stunting of children under age five. In addition, the study evaluates if there are inclusion and exclusion errors in the number of districts receiving assistance under the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) and identifies a food security dimension related to child undernourishment.
Basic data on eight indicators were collected at district level from different sources and analyzed using the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method to identify areas of concern. In addition to WLC method, a person product-moment correlation coefficient in SPSS was conducted to evaluate the relationship between under nutrition and food security dimensions.
The study findings indicated that northern, north eastern, southern and south eastern, and pocket areas in remaining parts of the country have relatively persistent chronic food and nutrition insecurity. Most of these districts have limited number of clusters of stunted and non-stunted children and as a result there is week correlation between food security dimension indicators and stunting. Most of high chronic food and nutrition insecure districts overlapped with PSNP implemented districts. Based on the study findings, in total 37 districts, which were shown up to be food and nutrition insecure were excluded, while 10 districts, which do not result as food insecure were included as a beneficiary of PSNP. 
Based on the results, the study provides recommendations to policy makers on the areas in Ethiopia that would need a better assistance under the PSNP and relief food assistance.},
  author       = {Amato, Mathewos Tamiru},
  keyword      = {multi-criteria evaluation,food and nutrition insecurity indicators,food security dimensions,Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis,GIS,districts,Ethiopia},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Master Thesis in Geographical Information Science},
  title        = {Using multi-criteria evaluation and GIS for chronic food and nutrition insecurity indicators analysis in Ethiopia},
  year         = {2016},
}