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Den känslosamma förövaren - En diskursanalytisk granskning av fridskränkningsbrotten

Ranerup, Therese LU (2016) JURM02 20162
Department of Law
Abstract
The overall aim of this project has been to analyze how the perpetrator and victim are constructed in the adjudication process of the criminal acts gross violation of integrity and gross violation of a woman’s integrity in Chapter 4, section 4a of the Swedish Penal Code. The sections regarding the criminal act gross violation of integrity will focus on cases concerning heterosexual partner violence where the woman is the perpetrator and the man the victim. The aim of this essay is furthermore to from within the established law analyze how the constructions of the perpetrator and crime victim can be related to Yvonne Hirdman’s theory of the gender system and to the application of the law. The methods applied in this essay are discourse... (More)
The overall aim of this project has been to analyze how the perpetrator and victim are constructed in the adjudication process of the criminal acts gross violation of integrity and gross violation of a woman’s integrity in Chapter 4, section 4a of the Swedish Penal Code. The sections regarding the criminal act gross violation of integrity will focus on cases concerning heterosexual partner violence where the woman is the perpetrator and the man the victim. The aim of this essay is furthermore to from within the established law analyze how the constructions of the perpetrator and crime victim can be related to Yvonne Hirdman’s theory of the gender system and to the application of the law. The methods applied in this essay are discourse analysis and the legal dogmatic method.

According to the crime code of the gross violation of the integrity offences, a person who commits criminal acts stated in Chapters 3, 4, 6 or 12 in the Swedish Penal Code or violates a restraining order against a person to whom he or she is in or has had a close relationship with, can be sentenced for gross violation of integrity. That is, if the court judge that the committed acts are suited to severely damage the other person’s self-confidence and form a part of an element in a repeated violation of the other person’s integrity.

In this thesis it will be stated that the female perpetrator is constructed as emotional in the criminal legal discourse since she is described as aggressive, troubled and hysterical, or as vulnerable due to for example homelessness or violence. The male perpetrator on the other hand is constructed as violent or as a person with mental health problems. Furthermore, the female victim is constructed as vulnerable due to for example the perpetrator’s physical advantage, her strong fear for the perpetrator or due to other conditions in her life. The female victim is also constructed as an ideal victim since she is portrayed as respectable, unselfish and forgiving of the perpetrator. Another discourse about the female victim is the discourse of the provocative woman, which is constructed by descriptions of the victim’s behavior while being violent, arguing and drunk. The male victim is moreover constructed as the ideal victim since he is described as unselfish and forgiving, or as vulnerable due to conditions in his life. Lastly, the male victim is constructed as an active victim with descriptions of how the victim practised self-defense.

The result from the discourse analysis is related to Hirdman’s theory of the gender system. In the analysis it will be stated that the male perpetrator is constructed as rational whereas the female is represented as an emotional, almost hysterical perpetrator. Through Hirdman’s principle of division between the sexes it will be stated that the male is portrayed as rational and the female as a non-thinking human controlled by her own emotions. It will also be noted in the essay that the male victim that is violent is not portrayed as negative as the female victim in the discourse of the provocative woman. This could be due to the fact that men according to Hirdman’s gender contract are expected to be superior and to have more power than women in relationships. Since in contrast to women, men’s subordination is not seen as natural.

The results from the discourse analysis can be related to a study made by Malou Andersson from her thesis regarding the gross violation of integrity offences. Malou Andersson states in the study that circumstances affiliated with the victim such as alcohol abuse, violence or a provocative behavior, may in the application of the law become factors that determine the necessary prerequisites - repeated violation of the other person’s integrity and acts suited to severely damage the self-confidence - as unfulfilled. In conclusion, it is stated in the thesis that it is still a risk that a victim’s traits and behavior may affect the judicial judgment and therefore the opportunity to achieve legal protection. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Det övergripande syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att analysera hur brottsoffer och förövare konstrueras i rättstillämpningen av grov kvinnofridskränkning och grov fridskränkning. Vad avser brottet grov fridskränkning kommer uppsatsens fokus vara på fall av heterosexuellt partnervåld där kvinnan är förövare och mannen brottsoffer. Uppsatsen syftar även till att utifrån gällande rätt analysera hur diskurser om brottsoffer och förövare kan relateras till Yvonne Hirdmans teori om samhällets genussystem och till rättstillämpningen. Metoderna som tillämpas i uppsatsen är rättsdogmatisk och diskursanalytisk metod.

Grov kvinnofridskränkning och grov fridskränkning är brott som tar sikte på vissa brottsliga gärningar som omfattas av 3,... (More)
Det övergripande syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att analysera hur brottsoffer och förövare konstrueras i rättstillämpningen av grov kvinnofridskränkning och grov fridskränkning. Vad avser brottet grov fridskränkning kommer uppsatsens fokus vara på fall av heterosexuellt partnervåld där kvinnan är förövare och mannen brottsoffer. Uppsatsen syftar även till att utifrån gällande rätt analysera hur diskurser om brottsoffer och förövare kan relateras till Yvonne Hirdmans teori om samhällets genussystem och till rättstillämpningen. Metoderna som tillämpas i uppsatsen är rättsdogmatisk och diskursanalytisk metod.

Grov kvinnofridskränkning och grov fridskränkning är brott som tar sikte på vissa brottsliga gärningar som omfattas av 3, 4, 6 eller 12 kap. BrB eller enligt 24 § lagen (1988:688) om kontaktförbud och som riktas mot en närstående eller tidigare närstående person till gärningsmannen. Fridskränkningsbestämmelsens lagkonstruktion innebär att de brottsliga gärningarna bedöms i ett sammanhang, nämligen om gärningarna tillsammans har utgjort en upprepad kränkning av den utsatta personens integritet och om gärningarna har varit ägnade att allvarligt skada den utsatta personens självkänsla.

I uppsatsen konstateras att den kvinnliga förövaren konstrueras som känslosam i rättsfallen genom att hon beskrivs som aggressiv, upprörd och hysterisk. Den kvinnliga förövaren beskrivs också som utsatt på grund av till exempel hemlöshet eller våld. Detta medan den manliga förövaren konstrueras som våldsam i rättsfallsmaterialet eller som en person med psykiska problem. Vidare konstrueras det kvinnliga brottsoffret som fysiskt utsatt genom mannens fysiska överläge eller som icke-fysiskt utsatt på grund av en stark rädsla för förövaren eller på grund av omständigheter i hennes livssituation. Det förekommer även en diskurs om det ideala kvinnliga brottsoffret genom att hon i rättsfallen framställs som respektabel, osjälvisk och förlåtande. En närmast motsatt diskurs är diskursen om den provocerande kvinnan som konstrueras genom att brottsoffret beskrivs som bråkig, våldsam och berusad. Vidare konstrueras även det manliga brottsoffret som det ideala brottsoffret genom att han beskrivs som osjälvisk och förlåtande mot förövaren, eller som utsatt på grund av omständigheter i brottsoffrets livssituation. Det manliga brottsoffret konstrueras även som ett aktivt brottsoffer i rättsfallen genom beskrivningar av hur han slår tillbaka i självförsvar.

Resultatet från diskursanalysen relateras i uppsatsen till Hirdmans teori om genussystemet. I analysen konstateras att de manliga förövarna konstrueras som förnuftiga våldsverkare medan de kvinnliga förövarna beskrivs som känslosamma, närmast hysteriska, våldsutövare. Genom isärhållandets princip framställs de manliga förövarna som rationella medan de kvinnliga förövarna snarare ses som icke-tänkande varelser som styrs av sina egna känslor. Vidare konstateras att anledningen till varför de manliga brottsoffren som brukade våld mot sina partners inte framställdes lika negativt som det kvinnliga brottsoffret som brukade våld, kan bero på att män utifrån genuskontraktet förväntas vara överordnade och ha mer makt än kvinnor i parrelationer. För till skillnad från kvinnornas situation anses inte männens underordning naturlig.

Slutligen kan resultatet från diskursanalysen kopplas till en studie från Malou Anderssons avhandling om fridskränkningsbrotten. I avhandlingen konstaterar Malou Andersson att omständigheter kopplade till brottsoffrets person, som till exempel alkoholmissbruk, våld eller ett provocerande beteende, kan i rättstillämpningen tas upp som omständigheter som gör att rekvisiten upprepad kränkning eller gärningar ägnade att allvarligt skada självkänslan inte anses uppfyllda. I uppsatsen konstateras att det därför föreligger en fortsatt risk att särskilt brottsoffers egenskaper och agerande kan få betydelse i den rättsliga bedömningen och därmed påverka brottsoffers möjlighet att erhålla straffrättsligt skydd. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ranerup, Therese LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The emotional perpetrator - a discourse analytic review of the gross violation of integrity offences
course
JURM02 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, grov kvinnofridskränkning, grov fridskränkning, diskursanalys, criminal law
language
Swedish
id
8896954
date added to LUP
2017-01-27 11:09:08
date last changed
2017-01-27 11:09:08
@misc{8896954,
  abstract     = {The overall aim of this project has been to analyze how the perpetrator and victim are constructed in the adjudication process of the criminal acts gross violation of integrity and gross violation of a woman’s integrity in Chapter 4, section 4a of the Swedish Penal Code. The sections regarding the criminal act gross violation of integrity will focus on cases concerning heterosexual partner violence where the woman is the perpetrator and the man the victim. The aim of this essay is furthermore to from within the established law analyze how the constructions of the perpetrator and crime victim can be related to Yvonne Hirdman’s theory of the gender system and to the application of the law. The methods applied in this essay are discourse analysis and the legal dogmatic method. 

According to the crime code of the gross violation of the integrity offences, a person who commits criminal acts stated in Chapters 3, 4, 6 or 12 in the Swedish Penal Code or violates a restraining order against a person to whom he or she is in or has had a close relationship with, can be sentenced for gross violation of integrity. That is, if the court judge that the committed acts are suited to severely damage the other person’s self-confidence and form a part of an element in a repeated violation of the other person’s integrity.

In this thesis it will be stated that the female perpetrator is constructed as emotional in the criminal legal discourse since she is described as aggressive, troubled and hysterical, or as vulnerable due to for example homelessness or violence. The male perpetrator on the other hand is constructed as violent or as a person with mental health problems. Furthermore, the female victim is constructed as vulnerable due to for example the perpetrator’s physical advantage, her strong fear for the perpetrator or due to other conditions in her life. The female victim is also constructed as an ideal victim since she is portrayed as respectable, unselfish and forgiving of the perpetrator. Another discourse about the female victim is the discourse of the provocative woman, which is constructed by descriptions of the victim’s behavior while being violent, arguing and drunk. The male victim is moreover constructed as the ideal victim since he is described as unselfish and forgiving, or as vulnerable due to conditions in his life. Lastly, the male victim is constructed as an active victim with descriptions of how the victim practised self-defense. 

The result from the discourse analysis is related to Hirdman’s theory of the gender system. In the analysis it will be stated that the male perpetrator is constructed as rational whereas the female is represented as an emotional, almost hysterical perpetrator. Through Hirdman’s principle of division between the sexes it will be stated that the male is portrayed as rational and the female as a non-thinking human controlled by her own emotions. It will also be noted in the essay that the male victim that is violent is not portrayed as negative as the female victim in the discourse of the provocative woman. This could be due to the fact that men according to Hirdman’s gender contract are expected to be superior and to have more power than women in relationships. Since in contrast to women, men’s subordination is not seen as natural. 

The results from the discourse analysis can be related to a study made by Malou Andersson from her thesis regarding the gross violation of integrity offences. Malou Andersson states in the study that circumstances affiliated with the victim such as alcohol abuse, violence or a provocative behavior, may in the application of the law become factors that determine the necessary prerequisites - repeated violation of the other person’s integrity and acts suited to severely damage the self-confidence - as unfulfilled. In conclusion, it is stated in the thesis that it is still a risk that a victim’s traits and behavior may affect the judicial judgment and therefore the opportunity to achieve legal protection.},
  author       = {Ranerup, Therese},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,grov kvinnofridskränkning,grov fridskränkning,diskursanalys,criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den känslosamma förövaren - En diskursanalytisk granskning av fridskränkningsbrotten},
  year         = {2016},
}