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Responsibility to protect - Principens innebörd och potential att skydda

Hallén, Olof LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Som en reaktion på de inomstatliga konflikter som utspelade sig under 1990-talet lanserade en internationell kommission kallad International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) rapporten The Responsibility to protect(R2P) år 2001. 1990-talets såväl som hela 1900-talets konflikter hade präglats av omfattande brott mot mänskligheten i stil med folkmord och etnisk rensning. För att förhindra att detta skedde igen lanserade ICISS en ny innebörd av begreppet statssuveränitet.
Det nya suveräntitetsbegreppet innebär inte enbart att en stat åtnjöt autonomi från yttre kontroll. Suveränitet innebär dessutom, enligt ICISS förslag, ett ansvar för varje legitim stat att skydda sin befolkning från brott mot mänskliga rättigheter. ... (More)
Som en reaktion på de inomstatliga konflikter som utspelade sig under 1990-talet lanserade en internationell kommission kallad International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) rapporten The Responsibility to protect(R2P) år 2001. 1990-talets såväl som hela 1900-talets konflikter hade präglats av omfattande brott mot mänskligheten i stil med folkmord och etnisk rensning. För att förhindra att detta skedde igen lanserade ICISS en ny innebörd av begreppet statssuveränitet.
Det nya suveräntitetsbegreppet innebär inte enbart att en stat åtnjöt autonomi från yttre kontroll. Suveränitet innebär dessutom, enligt ICISS förslag, ett ansvar för varje legitim stat att skydda sin befolkning från brott mot mänskliga rättigheter.
Det primära ansvaret för att skydda befolkningen ligger på den enskilda staten. Såvida den enskilda staten misslyckas med att skydda sin befolkning ligger ett sekundärt ansvar på världssamfundet att ingripa och säkerställa befolkningens skydd.
Vitala delar av det förslag som ICISS lanserade togs upp som norm i FN i samband med världstoppmötet år 2005. Sedan dess har begreppet R2P förekommit i flera resolutioner från FN i samband med diverse konflikter. Bland annat har doktrinen spelat en mycket intressant roll i det libyska och det syriska inbördeskrigen.
I detta arbete utreds innebörden av R2P. Vidare analyseras doktrinens tillkomst, tillämpning och potential att förebygga och förhindra folkmord, krigsförbrytelser, brott mot mänskligheten och etnisk rensning ur två teoretiska perspektiv.
Utifrån analysen dras slutsatsen att R2P mycket väl kan komma att spela en viktig roll som skydd från brott mot mänskliga rättigheter. Det konstateras också att doktrinens användning i nuläget förhindras av olika skäl, främst genom användning av veto från permanenta säkerhetsrådsmedlemmar. En hypotetisk slutsats blir att R2P:s tillämpning kan komma att bli starkt beroende av en ökad demokratisering i de länder som är permanenta säkerhetsrådsmedlemmar. Tendenser som pekar både för och emot en sådan utveckling identifieras och diskuteras kort i slutsatsen. (Less)
Abstract
In 2001, as a reaction to the intra-state conflicts occurring in the 1990s, a commission called the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) published the Responsibility to protect report (R2P). The purpose of the report was to offer a method to prevent the reoccurring
crimes against humanity that defined so many conflicts in the 20th
century. In order to prevent these crimes, the commission launched a new definition of state sovereignty.

The new definition of state sovereignty did not only amount to the traditional idea of state sovereignty consisting of every individual states autonomy from foreign control. State sovereignty in the future should also mean that every individual state has a... (More)
In 2001, as a reaction to the intra-state conflicts occurring in the 1990s, a commission called the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) published the Responsibility to protect report (R2P). The purpose of the report was to offer a method to prevent the reoccurring
crimes against humanity that defined so many conflicts in the 20th
century. In order to prevent these crimes, the commission launched a new definition of state sovereignty.

The new definition of state sovereignty did not only amount to the traditional idea of state sovereignty consisting of every individual states autonomy from foreign control. State sovereignty in the future should also mean that every individual state has a responsibility to protect its own
population from mass atrocity crimes such as genocide and crimes against humanity.

According to the new definition of state sovereignty, the primary responsibility to protect the population rests upon every individual state. In the case of an individual state failing to protect its
own population, a secondary responsibility to protect rests upon the international community.

Vital parts of the concept launched by the ICISS was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2005. Since then, R2P has been mentioned in several resolutions published by the UN. The doctrine has played an interesting role in the Libyan as well as the Syrian civil war.

This thesis attempts to give a definition to the actual content of
R2P. Further, the thesis attempts analyze the doctrines emergence, implementation and potential of preventing genocide, war crimes,
ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, using two theoretical perspectives.

The conclusion is reached, that R2P may very well play an important role as a tool to prevent mass atrocity crimes. Further, it’s found that the main obstacle to the appliance of the doctrine lies within the structure and function of the UN Security Council, since the permanent members of t
he council always has the possibility to stop the usage of R2P by using their veto. A hypothetical conclusion is that the application of the doctrine in many ways will depend on whether the permanent members
of the Security Council becomes more or less democratic. Tendencies pointing towards as well as against such a development are discussed in the conclusion of the thesis. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hallén, Olof LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
folkrätt, responsibility to protect, skyldigheten att skydda, r2p
language
Swedish
id
8896991
date added to LUP
2017-02-08 11:28:47
date last changed
2017-02-08 11:28:47
@misc{8896991,
  abstract     = {In 2001, as a reaction to the intra-state conflicts occurring in the 1990s, a commission called the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) published the Responsibility to protect report (R2P). The purpose of the report was to offer a method to prevent the reoccurring 
crimes against humanity that defined so many conflicts in the 20th
century. In order to prevent these crimes, the commission launched a new definition of state sovereignty. 

The new definition of state sovereignty did not only amount to the traditional idea of state sovereignty consisting of every individual states autonomy from foreign control. State sovereignty in the future should also mean that every individual state has a responsibility to protect its own 
population from mass atrocity crimes such as genocide and crimes against humanity. 

According to the new definition of state sovereignty, the primary responsibility to protect the population rests upon every individual state. In the case of an individual state failing to protect its 
own population, a secondary responsibility to protect rests upon the international community.

Vital parts of the concept launched by the ICISS was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2005. Since then, R2P has been mentioned in several resolutions published by the UN. The doctrine has played an interesting role in the Libyan as well as the Syrian civil war. 

This thesis attempts to give a definition to the actual content of 
R2P. Further, the thesis attempts analyze the doctrines emergence, implementation and potential of preventing genocide, war crimes, 
ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, using two theoretical perspectives. 

The conclusion is reached, that R2P may very well play an important role as a tool to prevent mass atrocity crimes. Further, it’s found that the main obstacle to the appliance of the doctrine lies within the structure and function of the UN Security Council, since the permanent members of t
he council always has the possibility to stop the usage of R2P by using their veto. A hypothetical conclusion is that the application of the doctrine in many ways will depend on whether the permanent members 
of the Security Council becomes more or less democratic. Tendencies pointing towards as well as against such a development are discussed in the conclusion of the thesis.},
  author       = {Hallén, Olof},
  keyword      = {folkrätt,responsibility to protect,skyldigheten att skydda,r2p},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Responsibility to protect - Principens innebörd och potential att skydda},
  year         = {2016},
}