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Tvång kontra samtycke kontra frivillighet - Utvecklingen av diskussionen kring införandet av en samtyckesreglering i förarbeten

Alemtar, Kimia LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Trots ett flertal överväganden om införande av en samtyckesreglering, har debatten kring en sådan reglering och våldtäktsbestämmelsen aldrig avstannat. Detta är ett ämne som väcker starka känslor, samt engagerar allmänheten och media i debatten.

Flera sexualbrottsutredningar har tillsatts för att på uppdrag av regeringen utreda om en samtyckesreglering borde införas i den svenska lagstiftningen för att förstärka den sexuella självbestämmanderätten. Vid bedömningarna övervägdes skälen för och emot en sådan reglering och var gång har skälen emot ansetts väga tyngre. Inte förrän 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté förordnades, lämnades ett förslag på en frivillighetsreglering.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur diskussionen kring... (More)
Trots ett flertal överväganden om införande av en samtyckesreglering, har debatten kring en sådan reglering och våldtäktsbestämmelsen aldrig avstannat. Detta är ett ämne som väcker starka känslor, samt engagerar allmänheten och media i debatten.

Flera sexualbrottsutredningar har tillsatts för att på uppdrag av regeringen utreda om en samtyckesreglering borde införas i den svenska lagstiftningen för att förstärka den sexuella självbestämmanderätten. Vid bedömningarna övervägdes skälen för och emot en sådan reglering och var gång har skälen emot ansetts väga tyngre. Inte förrän 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté förordnades, lämnades ett förslag på en frivillighetsreglering.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur diskussionen kring införandet av en eventuell samtyckesreglering, med fokus i förarbeten, har utvecklats under de senaste åren.

Det främsta skälet emot ett införande av en samtyckesreglering har varit bedömningen av risken för en orimlig fokusering på brottsoffret: dennes beteende och tidigare erfarenheter. Vidare har samtyckesbegreppet ansetts vara svårdefinierat och svårtillämpat, och diskussioner har förts kring vilket begrepp som skulle kunna användas: samtycke, tillåtelse eller frivilligt deltagande.

Dessa skäl har varit nästintill identiska men det som har skiljt dem åt är vilka överväganden som har gjorts när sexualbrottsutredningarna och regeringen har avvisat en samtyckesreglering. Såväl 1998 års sexualbrottskommitté som 2004 års proposition avvisade en samtyckesreglering efter en övervägning, men regeringen angav inte närmare vilka överväganden som egentligen hade gjorts vid ett avvisande. 2008 års utredning presenterade, istället för en samtyckesreglering, ett förslag till ett samtyckesbaserat brott subsidiärt till våldtäkt, vilket förkastades av regeringen. Däremot är det tydligare i 2012 års proposition hur övervägningen har gjorts och vad som egentligen har legat till grund då en samtyckesreglering och en subsidiär samtyckesbaserad bestämmelse har avvisats. 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté har tagit upp vissa av argumenten emot ett införande som har angetts i de tidigare utredningarna, men kommitténs övervägning, till skillnad från de tidigare utredningarnas överväganden, bestod i att försöka lösa de problem som ansågs finnas med en samtyckesreglering. Genom en sammantagen övervägning bedömde kommittén att argumenten emot går att lösa och därför väger dessa inte längre tyngre än skälen för ett införande. Därmed föreslår 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté en frivillighetsreglering. Utvecklingen har gått från att i princip säga att en sådan reglering inte borde införas på grund av argumenten emot till att faktiskt försöka finna lösningar på de problem som sexualbrottsutredningarna och regeringen, genom åren, pekat på med en samtyckesbaserad lagstiftning. Således har skillnaderna bestått i hanteringen av de problem som har ansetts finnas med en samtyckesreglering i betänkandena och propositionerna. (Less)
Abstract
Despite numerous deliberations of introducing a consent-based legislation, the debate has never ceased. This is a subject that evokes strong emotions among the public and media, which engages them in the debate.

Several Sexual Offences Commissions have been assigned by the Government to investigate whether a consent-based regulation should be passed as law to reinforce the right to sexual self-determination. The investigations deliberated the reasons for and against passing such legislation, and each time the reasons against have been considered greater than those for. It was not until the Sexual Offences Commission of 2014 was appointed, that a proposal was submitted for a consent-based legislation.

The purpose of this dissertation... (More)
Despite numerous deliberations of introducing a consent-based legislation, the debate has never ceased. This is a subject that evokes strong emotions among the public and media, which engages them in the debate.

Several Sexual Offences Commissions have been assigned by the Government to investigate whether a consent-based regulation should be passed as law to reinforce the right to sexual self-determination. The investigations deliberated the reasons for and against passing such legislation, and each time the reasons against have been considered greater than those for. It was not until the Sexual Offences Commission of 2014 was appointed, that a proposal was submitted for a consent-based legislation.

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how the discussion regarding a consent- based legislation has developed in recent years in the preparatory work.

The main argument against adopting such legislation has been the assessment of the risk of the victim being the focus of the criminal investigation: the victim’s behavior and previous experiences. Furthermore, the term “consent” has been considered difficult to define and difficult to apply. There have been discussions about which term that should be used: “consent”, “permission” or “voluntary participation”.

These arguments have almost been identical but the difference has been how the considerations have been made when the different Sexual Offences Commissions and Government have rejected a consent-based legislation. After consideration, a consent- based legislation was rejected by the Sexual Offences Commissions of 1998 and in the Government bill of 2004, without the Government specifying what considerations was made and the basis of the rejection had been. The Sexual Offences Commission of 2008 presented a consent-based legislation subsidiary to the crime of rape, which the Government bill of 2012 turned down. As in the Government bill of 2012 it was much more distinguished what considerations were made and what the basis of rejecting such legislation was. The Sexual Offences Commission of 2014 has addressed these previous made arguments and problems against passing a consent-based law. The Commission’s consideration – unlike the previous ones – consisted of trying to solve the problems that a consent-based legislation could induce in. Through an overall assessment the Commission of 2014 found that the arguments against such legislation could be solved. Consequently, the Sexual Offences Commissions proposes that a consent-based legislation should be passed as law, but with the term “voluntary participation” instead of “consent”. The development of the arguments throughout the preparatory work has gone from saying that a consent-based legislations should not be passed as a law because of the many arguments against it, to actually try and find solutions to the problems with such legislation to present a proposal of a consent-based legislation. Thus, the differences between the Commissions and Government bills have been how they have addressed the problems regarding a consent-based legislation. (Less)
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author
Alemtar, Kimia LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt, våldtäkt, samtycke
language
Swedish
id
8897057
date added to LUP
2017-02-04 16:54:41
date last changed
2017-02-04 16:54:41
@misc{8897057,
  abstract     = {Despite numerous deliberations of introducing a consent-based legislation, the debate has never ceased. This is a subject that evokes strong emotions among the public and media, which engages them in the debate.

Several Sexual Offences Commissions have been assigned by the Government to investigate whether a consent-based regulation should be passed as law to reinforce the right to sexual self-determination. The investigations deliberated the reasons for and against passing such legislation, and each time the reasons against have been considered greater than those for. It was not until the Sexual Offences Commission of 2014 was appointed, that a proposal was submitted for a consent-based legislation.

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how the discussion regarding a consent- based legislation has developed in recent years in the preparatory work.

The main argument against adopting such legislation has been the assessment of the risk of the victim being the focus of the criminal investigation: the victim’s behavior and previous experiences. Furthermore, the term “consent” has been considered difficult to define and difficult to apply. There have been discussions about which term that should be used: “consent”, “permission” or “voluntary participation”.

These arguments have almost been identical but the difference has been how the considerations have been made when the different Sexual Offences Commissions and Government have rejected a consent-based legislation. After consideration, a consent- based legislation was rejected by the Sexual Offences Commissions of 1998 and in the Government bill of 2004, without the Government specifying what considerations was made and the basis of the rejection had been. The Sexual Offences Commission of 2008 presented a consent-based legislation subsidiary to the crime of rape, which the Government bill of 2012 turned down. As in the Government bill of 2012 it was much more distinguished what considerations were made and what the basis of rejecting such legislation was. The Sexual Offences Commission of 2014 has addressed these previous made arguments and problems against passing a consent-based law. The Commission’s consideration – unlike the previous ones – consisted of trying to solve the problems that a consent-based legislation could induce in. Through an overall assessment the Commission of 2014 found that the arguments against such legislation could be solved. Consequently, the Sexual Offences Commissions proposes that a consent-based legislation should be passed as law, but with the term “voluntary participation” instead of “consent”. The development of the arguments throughout the preparatory work has gone from saying that a consent-based legislations should not be passed as a law because of the many arguments against it, to actually try and find solutions to the problems with such legislation to present a proposal of a consent-based legislation. Thus, the differences between the Commissions and Government bills have been how they have addressed the problems regarding a consent-based legislation.},
  author       = {Alemtar, Kimia},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,våldtäkt,samtycke},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tvång kontra samtycke kontra frivillighet - Utvecklingen av diskussionen kring införandet av en samtyckesreglering i förarbeten},
  year         = {2016},
}