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Damerna först - en undersökning av debatten om könskvotering i bolagsstyrelser

Essemo Lorenzen, Emma LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den skeva könsfördelningen i bolagsstyrelser har hamnat i rampljuset för den svenska jämställdhetsdebatten. Debatten startade under 2000-talets första hälft och gav år 2016 upphov till ett lagförslag om könskvotering i bolagsstyrelser. Lagförslaget innebär att vardera kön ska representeras med minst 40 procent i börsbolagens styrelser och syftar till att öka jämställdheten inom både bolagsstyrelser och näringslivets övriga ledande befattningar. En lagstadgad könskvotering av det slag som föreslås i det svenska lagförslaget finns sedan ett decennium tillbaka i Norge, vilket medfört möjligheten att granska verkningarna av en sådan reglering. Norges kvoteringslag har medfört en jämn könsfördelning i bolagsstyrelser, men har också medfört en... (More)
Den skeva könsfördelningen i bolagsstyrelser har hamnat i rampljuset för den svenska jämställdhetsdebatten. Debatten startade under 2000-talets första hälft och gav år 2016 upphov till ett lagförslag om könskvotering i bolagsstyrelser. Lagförslaget innebär att vardera kön ska representeras med minst 40 procent i börsbolagens styrelser och syftar till att öka jämställdheten inom både bolagsstyrelser och näringslivets övriga ledande befattningar. En lagstadgad könskvotering av det slag som föreslås i det svenska lagförslaget finns sedan ett decennium tillbaka i Norge, vilket medfört möjligheten att granska verkningarna av en sådan reglering. Norges kvoteringslag har medfört en jämn könsfördelning i bolagsstyrelser, men har också medfört en rad andra verkningar, så som att bolag har bytt företagsform för att inte omfattas av kravet på en jämn könsfördelning.

Det svenska lagförslaget har bemötts med både ris och ros. Kritiken mot förslaget grundas främst i att en lagstadgad könskvotering innebär en inskränkning av aktieägarnas rätt att utse styrelseledamöter i de bolag de äger akter i. Styrelsen och dess sammansättning är avgörande för bolagets styrelsesätt och välmående, varför aktieägarnas rätt att utse dess ledamöter utgör grunden i den svenska modellen för bolagsstyrning. Rätten för aktieägarna att utse styrelsen utgör även en del av rätten till egendom – en rätt som befästs i flertalet internationella dokument, däribland Europakonventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (EKMR). Könskvoterings förenlighet med egendomsskyddet har diskuterats flitigt i media samt i remissinstansernas yttranden avseende det svenska lagförslaget. Förevarande uppsats utreder huruvida könskvotering i bolagsstyrelser är en tillåten inskränkning av rätten till egendom. Enligt min mening är lagstadgad könskvotering tillåten ur ett egendomsrättsligt perspektiv, då den främjar ett allmänt intresse i form av jämställdhet. En reglering likt den som föreslås i det svenska lagförslaget bör också anses proportionerlig, med hänsyn till det stora antal kompetenta kvinnor som är lämpade för styrelseuppdrag. Den föreslagna regleringens förenlighet med egendomsskyddet innebär dock inte att den är att föredra framför andra medel för en jämn könsfördelning. Som förevarande uppsats åskådliggör har verkningarna av den norska kvoteringslagen inte blivit de åsyftade. Lärdom bör dras av det norska exemplet och det svenska lagförslaget bör således granskas mycket noggrant. (Less)
Abstract
The gender imbalance in corporate boards has in the recent years been subject for debate in Swedish gender politics. The debate started in 2002 and has induced a legislative proposal on gender quotas. The proposal suggests that each gender should be represented by at least 40 percent of the board members and refers to establish a balance between men and women in corporate boards and on other leading positions in the business world. A gender quotation prescribed by law, like the one in the Swedish proposal, is since 2006 in force in Norway, which makes it possible to study the effects of such a legislation. The Norwegian quota law has established a balance between men and women in corporate boards, but it has also resulted in a number of... (More)
The gender imbalance in corporate boards has in the recent years been subject for debate in Swedish gender politics. The debate started in 2002 and has induced a legislative proposal on gender quotas. The proposal suggests that each gender should be represented by at least 40 percent of the board members and refers to establish a balance between men and women in corporate boards and on other leading positions in the business world. A gender quotation prescribed by law, like the one in the Swedish proposal, is since 2006 in force in Norway, which makes it possible to study the effects of such a legislation. The Norwegian quota law has established a balance between men and women in corporate boards, but it has also resulted in a number of other effects, for instance have several companies changed its legal form to avoid being subject to the regulation.

The Swedish debate on gender quotas consists of both arguments supporting the proposal and arguments criticising it. The criticism is mainly based on the fact that gender quotation prescribed by law is a restriction of the shareholders’ right to nominate the board members. The board and its composition is essential for the governance and the economic development of the company, which is the reason that the shareholders’ right to nominate the board members is a cornerstone in the Swedish company regulations. The shareholders’ right to nominate the board members is also a part of the right to property, which is enacted in numerous international documents, such as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). The gender quota regulation and its compatibility with the right to property will be examined in this essay. In my opinion, gender quota regulations are permitted from a property law perspective, as it promotes the public interest. A regulation like the one proposed in the Swedish proposal should also be considered proportionate, with respect to the large number of competent women who are suitable for board of directors assignments. The proposed regulation’s compatibility with the right of property does not implicate that it is preferable to other means of gender balance. As this essay illustrates, the Norwegian quota law has not had the intended effects. Lessons should be learned from the Norwegian example and the Swedish proposal should therefore be studied very closely. (Less)
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author
Essemo Lorenzen, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Associationsrätt, Könskvotering, Egendomsskyddet
language
Swedish
id
8897067
date added to LUP
2017-02-04 16:49:41
date last changed
2017-02-04 16:49:41
@misc{8897067,
  abstract     = {The gender imbalance in corporate boards has in the recent years been subject for debate in Swedish gender politics. The debate started in 2002 and has induced a legislative proposal on gender quotas. The proposal suggests that each gender should be represented by at least 40 percent of the board members and refers to establish a balance between men and women in corporate boards and on other leading positions in the business world. A gender quotation prescribed by law, like the one in the Swedish proposal, is since 2006 in force in Norway, which makes it possible to study the effects of such a legislation. The Norwegian quota law has established a balance between men and women in corporate boards, but it has also resulted in a number of other effects, for instance have several companies changed its legal form to avoid being subject to the regulation. 

The Swedish debate on gender quotas consists of both arguments supporting the proposal and arguments criticising it. The criticism is mainly based on the fact that gender quotation prescribed by law is a restriction of the shareholders’ right to nominate the board members. The board and its composition is essential for the governance and the economic development of the company, which is the reason that the shareholders’ right to nominate the board members is a cornerstone in the Swedish company regulations. The shareholders’ right to nominate the board members is also a part of the right to property, which is enacted in numerous international documents, such as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). The gender quota regulation and its compatibility with the right to property will be examined in this essay. In my opinion, gender quota regulations are permitted from a property law perspective, as it promotes the public interest. A regulation like the one proposed in the Swedish proposal should also be considered proportionate, with respect to the large number of competent women who are suitable for board of directors assignments. The proposed regulation’s compatibility with the right of property does not implicate that it is preferable to other means of gender balance. As this essay illustrates, the Norwegian quota law has not had the intended effects. Lessons should be learned from the Norwegian example and the Swedish proposal should therefore be studied very closely.},
  author       = {Essemo Lorenzen, Emma},
  keyword      = {Associationsrätt,Könskvotering,Egendomsskyddet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Damerna först - en undersökning av debatten om könskvotering i bolagsstyrelser},
  year         = {2016},
}