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Lojalitetsplikten och Draft Common Frame of Reference - Europeiska akademikers inverkan på svensk avtalsrätt

Hellberg, Albin LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Lojalitetsplikten är en rättsprincip inom framför allt avtalsrätten som i stort innebär att en part i viss utsträckning även ska tillvarata sin motparts intressen så att denne inte lider skada. Lojalitetsplikten gäller både före, under och efter avtalsförhållandet, men vilka rättsföljder som följer när en part inte uppfyller lojalitetsplikten är oklart och beror på olika faktorer, som till exempel vilken typ av avtal det handlar om, hur långvarigt avtalsförhållandet är och har varit samt övriga omständigheter. Eftersom lojalitetsplikten är så pass vag är det också svårt för parter att veta när lojalitetsplikten anses uppfylld eller inte.

Hittills har lojalitetsplikten använts i ett par fall som argument för en påföljd, men även av... (More)
Lojalitetsplikten är en rättsprincip inom framför allt avtalsrätten som i stort innebär att en part i viss utsträckning även ska tillvarata sin motparts intressen så att denne inte lider skada. Lojalitetsplikten gäller både före, under och efter avtalsförhållandet, men vilka rättsföljder som följer när en part inte uppfyller lojalitetsplikten är oklart och beror på olika faktorer, som till exempel vilken typ av avtal det handlar om, hur långvarigt avtalsförhållandet är och har varit samt övriga omständigheter. Eftersom lojalitetsplikten är så pass vag är det också svårt för parter att veta när lojalitetsplikten anses uppfylld eller inte.

Hittills har lojalitetsplikten använts i ett par fall som argument för en påföljd, men även av parter åberopad som självständig rättsgrund. Högsta domstolen har hittills varit mycket restriktiv i sitt användande av begreppet lojalitetsplikt i sina domskäl. Ett fall där detta blev aktuellt var fallet NJA 2009 s 672, där hovrätten i sina domskäl hänvisade till lojalitetsplikten, medan högsta domstolen, som kom fram till samma domslut som hovrätten, inte ens nämnde lojalitetsplikten i sina domskäl. Vad detta faktum innebär har diskuterats flitigt i doktrin och både åsikten att detta medför att parter och domstolar inte ska använda sig av lojalitetsplikten och åsikten att detta fall inte på något sätt utesluter användandet av lojalitetsplikten har framförts.

I den av europeiska akademiker sammanställda principsamlingen Draft Common Frame Of Reference, vilket kan sägas utgöra en sammanfattning av europeisk avtalsrätt, nämns begreppet "good faith and fair dealings" på ett flertal ställen. Detta begrepp går förmodligen inte att direktöversätta till den svenska lojalitetsplikten, men bakgrundstanken bakom de två är onekligen densamma. DCFR har inte ställning som rättskälla i svensk rätt, utan intar endast en ställning av "soft law". Trots detta har svenska domstolar hänvisat till arbetet och hämtat inspiration från det i ett tiotal fall. I fallet NJA 2009 s 672 var det bland annat efter en hänvisning till en regel i DCFR som Högsta domstolen kom fram till sitt domslut.

Hur lojalitetsplikten kommer att utvecklas i framtiden hänger ihop med behovet av en sådan princip och påverkan från internationell rätt. I DCFR finns lojalitetstanken tydligt och då fler och fler blir bekanta med arbetet och väljer att använda sig av det, så leder detta förmodligen till att även lojalitetsplikten inom svensk rätt påverkas. Oavsett om det blir på så sätt att lojalitetsplikten som den ser ut idag blir mer erkänd och tillämpad eller om det blir så att regler som också kommer från lojalitetstanken som till exempel 36§ avtalslagen, förutsättningsläran och principen om culpa in contrahendo kommer att tillämpas i större utsträckning återstår att se. (Less)
Abstract
The duty of loyalty is a principle within the Swedish contract law which basically means that a party also has to consider its counterparts interest and make sure that, to some extent, the counterpart does not get damaged financially. The duty of loyalty as a principle takes effect before, during and after the contractual relationship. What a breach of the principle will lead to all depends on what type of contract it is, how long the parties have been in negotiations and other circumstances. Because of the vague nature of the duty of loyalty principle, it is often hard for parties to know whether they fulfill their duties or not.

So far the duty of loyalty has been used in a few cases as an argument for a sanction, but also by parties... (More)
The duty of loyalty is a principle within the Swedish contract law which basically means that a party also has to consider its counterparts interest and make sure that, to some extent, the counterpart does not get damaged financially. The duty of loyalty as a principle takes effect before, during and after the contractual relationship. What a breach of the principle will lead to all depends on what type of contract it is, how long the parties have been in negotiations and other circumstances. Because of the vague nature of the duty of loyalty principle, it is often hard for parties to know whether they fulfill their duties or not.

So far the duty of loyalty has been used in a few cases as an argument for a sanction, but also by parties referred to as its own legal basis. The Swedish Supreme Court has so far been very restrictive in its use of the term duty of loyalty in its grounds for decisions. A case where this became clear is the case NJA 2009 s 672, where the Court of Appeal in its grounds for decision used the duty of loyalty, while the Supreme Court who ruled as the Court of Appeal did, didn't use the term duty of loyalty in its grounds for decision. What this fact means has been discussed in doctrine quite a bit. Both the opinion that this means that lawyers and courts shouldn't use the term duty of loyalty to the opinion that this case doesn't affect the use of duty of loyalty in the Swedish courts has been expressed.

The Draft Common Frame of Reference is a summary of European Contract Law made by European academics. In this summary the term "good faith and fair dealings" are mentioned several times. It is not possible to directly translate the meaning of the term mentioned in the DCFR with the meaning of the Swedish principle of duty of loyalty but the ideas behind them are very similar. The DCFR is not considered as a source of law in Sweden but instead considered "soft law". Despite this fact Swedish courts have referred to and gotten inspiration from the DCFR in some ten cases. In the case NJA 2009 s 672 the Supreme Court came to its decision after having referred to a rule in the DCFR.

How the principle of duty of loyalty will develop in the future is depending on the need for a principle such as this one and also the development of international law. In the Draft Common Frame of Reference the idea of loyalty as a principle behind some of the rules is clear, and when more and more people become familiar with this work, it will probably affect the Swedish principle of duty of loyalty. It's possible that the duty of loyalty as the principle is today will become more recognized and applied. It is also possible that other rules that stem from the idea of loyalty, such as 36§ avtalslagen, the theory of expectations and the principle of culpa in contrahendo will be more applied. Whatever happens will remain to be seen. (Less)
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author
Hellberg, Albin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt, Lojalitetsplikt, Lojalitetsprincipen, DCFR, Draft Common Frame of reference
language
Swedish
id
8897154
date added to LUP
2017-02-08 11:27:40
date last changed
2017-02-08 11:27:40
@misc{8897154,
  abstract     = {The duty of loyalty is a principle within the Swedish contract law which basically means that a party also has to consider its counterparts interest and make sure that, to some extent, the counterpart does not get damaged financially. The duty of loyalty as a principle takes effect before, during and after the contractual relationship. What a breach of the principle will lead to all depends on what type of contract it is, how long the parties have been in negotiations and other circumstances. Because of the vague nature of the duty of loyalty principle, it is often hard for parties to know whether they fulfill their duties or not. 

So far the duty of loyalty has been used in a few cases as an argument for a sanction, but also by parties referred to as its own legal basis. The Swedish Supreme Court has so far been very restrictive in its use of the term duty of loyalty in its grounds for decisions. A case where this became clear is the case NJA 2009 s 672, where the Court of Appeal in its grounds for decision used the duty of loyalty, while the Supreme Court who ruled as the Court of Appeal did, didn't use the term duty of loyalty in its grounds for decision. What this fact means has been discussed in doctrine quite a bit. Both the opinion that this means that lawyers and courts shouldn't use the term duty of loyalty to the opinion that this case doesn't affect the use of duty of loyalty in the Swedish courts has been expressed.

The Draft Common Frame of Reference is a summary of European Contract Law made by European academics. In this summary the term "good faith and fair dealings" are mentioned several times. It is not possible to directly translate the meaning of the term mentioned in the DCFR with the meaning of the Swedish principle of duty of loyalty but the ideas behind them are very similar. The DCFR is not considered as a source of law in Sweden but instead considered "soft law". Despite this fact Swedish courts have referred to and gotten inspiration from the DCFR in some ten cases. In the case NJA 2009 s 672 the Supreme Court came to its decision after having referred to a rule in the DCFR.

How the principle of duty of loyalty will develop in the future is depending on the need for a principle such as this one and also the development of international law. In the Draft Common Frame of Reference the idea of loyalty as a principle behind some of the rules is clear, and when more and more people become familiar with this work, it will probably affect the Swedish principle of duty of loyalty. It's possible that the duty of loyalty as the principle is today will become more recognized and applied. It is also possible that other rules that stem from the idea of loyalty, such as 36§ avtalslagen, the theory of expectations and the principle of culpa in contrahendo will be more applied. Whatever happens will remain to be seen.},
  author       = {Hellberg, Albin},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt,Lojalitetsplikt,Lojalitetsprincipen,DCFR,Draft Common Frame of reference},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Lojalitetsplikten och Draft Common Frame of Reference - Europeiska akademikers inverkan på svensk avtalsrätt},
  year         = {2016},
}