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Krävs det en ny sexualbrottslagstiftning? - En kritisk granskning av 2014 års sexualbrottskommittés slutbetänkande

Walkenfors, Martin LU (2016) JURM02 20162
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen har sin utgångspunkt i det slutbetänkande 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté presenterade i oktober 2016. Fokus blir på de direktiv sexualbrottskommittén fick för att undersöka och ta fram ett förslag till en sexualbrottslagstiftning, som bygger på samtycke samt om och hur en oaktsamhetsbestämmelse skulle kunna utformas.

Första delen av uppsatsen belyser lagstiftningsreformen från 2005, vilken hade till uppgift att stärka skyddet för varje persons sexuella integritet och självbestämmanderätt.
2008 års sexualbrottsutredning fick bl.a. i uppgift att utreda effekterna av 2005 års lagstiftningsreform, om skyddet hade stärkts eller fanns det fortfarande brister i lagstiftningen samt ta ställning till om en samtyckeslagstiftning... (More)
Uppsatsen har sin utgångspunkt i det slutbetänkande 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté presenterade i oktober 2016. Fokus blir på de direktiv sexualbrottskommittén fick för att undersöka och ta fram ett förslag till en sexualbrottslagstiftning, som bygger på samtycke samt om och hur en oaktsamhetsbestämmelse skulle kunna utformas.

Första delen av uppsatsen belyser lagstiftningsreformen från 2005, vilken hade till uppgift att stärka skyddet för varje persons sexuella integritet och självbestämmanderätt.
2008 års sexualbrottsutredning fick bl.a. i uppgift att utreda effekterna av 2005 års lagstiftningsreform, om skyddet hade stärkts eller fanns det fortfarande brister i lagstiftningen samt ta ställning till om en samtyckeslagstiftning borde införas i Sverige. 2008 års sexualbrottsutredning fann att skyddet för brottsoffret, när denna befunnit sig i ett hjälplöst tillstånd inte var tillräckligt, vilket ledde till förslaget om en lagändring där hjälplöst tillstånd skulle ersättas med begreppet särskilt utsatt situation, vilket ansågs vidga och stärka lagstiftningen.
Varken utredningen eller regeringen ansåg att samtycke skulle införas som ett av de primära brottsrekvisiten vid våldtäkt.
2013 ändrades sexualbrottslagstiftningen, vilket bl.a. ledde till att särskilt utsatt situation ersatte begreppet hjälplöst tillstånd.

Vidare diskuteras vad som krävs för att ett införande av en samtyckeslagstiftning ska ses som rättssäkert. Legalitetsprincipen, konformitetsprincipen och skuldprincipen tas upp för att belysa de problem en samtyckeslagstiftning kan innebära. Tidigare kritik mot införandet av samtyckeslagstiftning grundade sig i problematiken rörande förutsebarhet och tolkning. I avsnittet finns även uttalande från både professor emerita i straffrätt, Madeleine Leijonhufvud och professor i straffrätt, Petter Asp om hur rättssäkerheten kring ett införande av samtyckeslagstiftning bör tolkas.

Därefter sker en genomgång av 2014 års sexualbrottskommittés slutbetänkande, där de brister kommittén funnit med den nuvarande lagstiftningen och en praxisgenomgång av fall där lagstiftningen har brustit. Det görs övervägande om det räcker att komplettera den nuvarande lagstiftningen eller om den helt måste ändras, det slutgiltiga beslutet blev ett förslag till ny lagstiftning.
Det följer sen ett avsnitt som belyser den kritik som funnits mot införandet av en samtyckeslagstiftning i Sverige och hur tidigare propositioner på området sett på frågan. Advokat Thomas Bodström (f.d. justitieminister), Fredrik Wersäll, Hovrättspresident i Svea hovrätt m.fl. uttalar sig om de positiva och negativa effekterna med en samtyckeslagstiftning.
Vidare presenteras hur utformningen av lagstiftningen blir och varför oaktsamhetsansvar vid våldtäkt ska införas.
Avsnittet avslutas med det lagförslag kommittén tagit fram i sitt slutbetänkande. De paragrafer som diskuteras i uppsatsen rör våldtäktsbestämmelsen, vilken får benämningen sexuellt övergrepp samt grovt sexuellt övergrepp och oaktsamt sexuellt övergrepp.

Uppsatsen har även ett internationellt perspektiv, där sexualbrottslagstiftningen i Norge och Skottland förklaras. Norge har en lagstiftning likt den svenska där våldtäktsbestämmelsen bygger på våld och tvång, men har infört en oaktsamhetsbestämmelse som är av intresse för svensk lagstiftning.
Skottlands sexualbrottslagstiftning bygger däremot fullt ut på samtycke, vilket ger en inblick i hur en samtyckeslagstiftning skulle kunna utformas i Sverige. Uppsatsen tar även upp statistik från de båda länderna, som visar hur oaktsamhetsbrottet i Norge tillämpas samt hur registrerade våldtäkter i Skottland har ökat sen införandet av en samtyckesreglering.

Det föreslagna lagförslag som presenterats av 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté tillämpas sedan på två olika fall där friande domar utdömts. Tanken är att se om en samtyckeslagstiftning hade ändrat utfallet. I det första fallet som kallas ”Tenstafallet” blir utfallet friande både med tillämpandet av den nya samtyckesbestämmelsen samt oaktsamhetsbestämmelsen, medan i det så kallade ”Dominanssexmålet” skulle en samtyckeslagstiftning faktiskt kunna leda till en fällande dom både gällande sexuellt övergrepp (våldtäkt i nuvarande lagstiftning) och oaktsamhet.

I den avslutande delen leder analysen fram till att det lagförslag 2014 års sexualbrottskommitté presenterade i sitt slutbetänkande inte bör införas, då det ses som en alltför stor förändring och utfallet av lagstiftningen inte kan garantera varken ett starkare skydd eller fler fällande domar. Dock finns det flera positiva inslag bl.a. förslaget på en oaktsamhetsbestämmelse. (Less)
Abstract
The essay is based on the final report the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee presented in October 2016. Focus will be on those directives the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee was given in order to examine and develop a proposal to a sexual offence legislation built on consent and if and how a negligent regulation could be formed.
The first part of the essay illustrates the legislative reform from the year 2005 that had the task to strengthen the protection for each person´s sexual integrity and selfdetermination.

The 2008 Sexual crime investigation was given inter alia the task of investigating the effects of the Sexual Offences Reform of 2005, if the protection had been strengthened or were there still imperfections in the legislation and... (More)
The essay is based on the final report the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee presented in October 2016. Focus will be on those directives the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee was given in order to examine and develop a proposal to a sexual offence legislation built on consent and if and how a negligent regulation could be formed.
The first part of the essay illustrates the legislative reform from the year 2005 that had the task to strengthen the protection for each person´s sexual integrity and selfdetermination.

The 2008 Sexual crime investigation was given inter alia the task of investigating the effects of the Sexual Offences Reform of 2005, if the protection had been strengthened or were there still imperfections in the legislation and take a stand if a consent-based regulation should be introduced in Sweden.
The 2008 Sexual Crime Investigation found that the protection of a victim being in a helpless situation was not sufficient resulting in the proposal for a change in the law where helpless state should be replaced by the term particularly exposed situation that was considered broaden and strengthen the legislation.
Neither the investigation nor the goverment considered that a consent should be introduced as one of the primary crime requisite of rape.

In 2013 the Legislation of Sexual Crime was changed that among other things led to that particularly exposed situation replaced the concept helpless state.

Further is discussed the requirements of an introduction of a consent-based regulation that should be seen as rule of law. The principle of legality, the principle of conformity and the principle of guilt are taken up to illustrate the difficulties a consent-based regulation might involve. Earlier criticism against the introduction to a consent-based regulation was based on the difficulties in predictability and interpretation. In the section there also are statements of Professor emerita in criminal justice, Madeleine Leijonhufvud and Professor in criminal justice , Petter Asp on how the legal security on the introduction of a consent-based regulation should be interpreted.
Then there will be a review of the final report of the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee where the imperfections the Committee had found with the current legislation and a practice review of cases where the legislation has failed. It allows consideration if it is enough completing the current legislation or if it must be completely changed. The final decision was a new legislation.
Followed by a sector illustrating the criticism that had been against the introduction of a consent-based regulation in Sweden and how former bill within the area has looked upon the issue. Lawyer Thomas Bodström (former Attorney General), Fredrik Wersäll, President of Svea Court of Appeal among others express positive and negative effects with a consent-based regulation.
Further is introduced how the formulation of the legislation becomes and why the negligent regulation at rape will be introduced.

The section ends with the bill the Committee has developed in it´s final report. The paragraphs discussed in the essay relates the provision of rape that will be named sexual abuse and aggravated sexual abuse and negligent sexual abuse.
The essay also has an international perspective where the Legislation of Sexual Crime in Norway and Scotland is explained. Norway has a legislation similar to the Swedish where offence of rape is based on violence and coercion, but has introduced a negligence regulation that is of interest for the Swedish legislation.
The legislation of Sexual Crime of Scotland is on the other hand fully based on a consent which gives an insight into how a consent-based regulation could be designed in Sweden. The essay also takes up statistics from both countries showing how the negligence crime in Norway is applied and how registrated rapes have increased in Scotland since the introduction of a consent regulation.
The proposed bill introduced by the 2014 Sexual Offence Committee is thereafter applied on two different cases where verdicts of acquital were imposed. The intension is to determinate if a consent-based regulation had changed the outcome. In the first case called ”The Tensta case” the outcome is acquitted both with the application of the new consent-based regulation and negligence regulation while in the so-called ” Dominance sexcase” a consent-based regulation as a matter of fact could lead to a conviction both regarding sexual abuse (rape in the current legislation) and negligence.

In the final part the analysis leads to the bill, introduced by the 2014 Sexual Offence Committee in it´s final report, should not be imposed as seen as too great a change and the outcome can not garantie neither a stronger protection nor more convictions. However, there are several positive elements among other things the proposal on negligence regulation. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Walkenfors, Martin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Is there a claim for a new Legislation of Sexual Crime? - A critical review of the final report of the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee
course
JURM02 20162
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
komparativ rätt, straffrätt, allmän rättslära
language
Swedish
id
8897204
date added to LUP
2017-01-31 10:56:30
date last changed
2017-01-31 10:56:30
@misc{8897204,
  abstract     = {The essay is based on the final report the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee presented in October 2016. Focus will be on those directives the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee was given in order to examine and develop a proposal to a sexual offence legislation built on consent and if and how a negligent regulation could be formed. 
The first part of the essay illustrates the legislative reform from the year 2005 that had the task to strengthen the protection for each person´s sexual integrity and selfdetermination.

The 2008 Sexual crime investigation was given inter alia the task of investigating the effects of the Sexual Offences Reform of 2005, if the protection had been strengthened or were there still imperfections in the legislation and take a stand if a consent-based regulation should be introduced in Sweden. 
The 2008 Sexual Crime Investigation found that the protection of a victim being in a helpless situation was not sufficient resulting in the proposal for a change in the law where helpless state should be replaced by the term particularly exposed situation that was considered broaden and strengthen the legislation.
Neither the investigation nor the goverment considered that a consent should be introduced as one of the primary crime requisite of rape. 

In 2013 the Legislation of Sexual Crime was changed that among other things led to that particularly exposed situation replaced the concept helpless state.

Further is discussed the requirements of an introduction of a consent-based regulation that should be seen as rule of law. The principle of legality, the principle of conformity and the principle of guilt are taken up to illustrate the difficulties a consent-based regulation might involve. Earlier criticism against the introduction to a consent-based regulation was based on the difficulties in predictability and interpretation. In the section there also are statements of Professor emerita in criminal justice, Madeleine Leijonhufvud and Professor in criminal justice , Petter Asp on how the legal security on the introduction of a consent-based regulation should be interpreted. 
Then there will be a review of the final report of the 2014 Sexual Offences Committee where the imperfections the Committee had found with the current legislation and a practice review of cases where the legislation has failed. It allows consideration if it is enough completing the current legislation or if it must be completely changed. The final decision was a new legislation.
Followed by a sector illustrating the criticism that had been against the introduction of a consent-based regulation in Sweden and how former bill within the area has looked upon the issue. Lawyer Thomas Bodström (former Attorney General), Fredrik Wersäll, President of Svea Court of Appeal among others express positive and negative effects with a consent-based regulation.
Further is introduced how the formulation of the legislation becomes and why the negligent regulation at rape will be introduced.

The section ends with the bill the Committee has developed in it´s final report. The paragraphs discussed in the essay relates the provision of rape that will be named sexual abuse and aggravated sexual abuse and negligent sexual abuse.
The essay also has an international perspective where the Legislation of Sexual Crime in Norway and Scotland is explained. Norway has a legislation similar to the Swedish where offence of rape is based on violence and coercion, but has introduced a negligence regulation that is of interest for the Swedish legislation.
The legislation of Sexual Crime of Scotland is on the other hand fully based on a consent which gives an insight into how a consent-based regulation could be designed in Sweden. The essay also takes up statistics from both countries showing how the negligence crime in Norway is applied and how registrated rapes have increased in Scotland since the introduction of a consent regulation.
The proposed bill introduced by the 2014 Sexual Offence Committee is thereafter applied on two different cases where verdicts of acquital were imposed. The intension is to determinate if a consent-based regulation had changed the outcome. In the first case called ”The Tensta case” the outcome is acquitted both with the application of the new consent-based regulation and negligence regulation while in the so-called ” Dominance sexcase” a consent-based regulation as a matter of fact could lead to a conviction both regarding sexual abuse (rape in the current legislation) and negligence. 

In the final part the analysis leads to the bill, introduced by the 2014 Sexual Offence Committee in it´s final report, should not be imposed as seen as too great a change and the outcome can not garantie neither a stronger protection nor more convictions. However, there are several positive elements among other things the proposal on negligence regulation.},
  author       = {Walkenfors, Martin},
  keyword      = {komparativ rätt,straffrätt,allmän rättslära},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Krävs det en ny sexualbrottslagstiftning? - En kritisk granskning av 2014 års sexualbrottskommittés slutbetänkande},
  year         = {2016},
}