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Våldtäkt bortom (o)rimligt tvivel? - en progressiv undersökning av bevisproblematiken i våldtäktsmål kontra en potentiell samtyckesreglering

Ravelli, Emelie LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
The purpose of this essay is to shed light on the problems of proving a perpetrator guilty in rape-cases and to examine certain consequences of a future regulation based on consent. Using a traditional judicial method I have sought to answer the question of how a law of consent would affect the difficulties regarding the, from an evidential point of view, challenging position in cases concerning rape.

Today rape is regulated in 6 chapter 1 § in the criminal code and the crime constitutes when somebody forces another person to intercourse or other sexual act using violence or threat or in other way exploits another person who is in a vulnerable position. The challenge in proving a rapist guilty lies partly within the lack of objective... (More)
The purpose of this essay is to shed light on the problems of proving a perpetrator guilty in rape-cases and to examine certain consequences of a future regulation based on consent. Using a traditional judicial method I have sought to answer the question of how a law of consent would affect the difficulties regarding the, from an evidential point of view, challenging position in cases concerning rape.

Today rape is regulated in 6 chapter 1 § in the criminal code and the crime constitutes when somebody forces another person to intercourse or other sexual act using violence or threat or in other way exploits another person who is in a vulnerable position. The challenge in proving a rapist guilty lies partly within the lack of objective proof since in most rape-cases there is only the perpetrator and the victim present when the alleged crime is committed. For this reason the members of the Court are limited to an assessment based solely on credibility and reliability of the testimonies of the two parties.

The members of the supreme court have gone from a perpetrator-friendly attitude where they have deduced themselves with the perpetrators argument of consent – to an assessment based on the woman’s right to her own body. Despite the modern features of the grounds for decision the trials often reach a clearing verdict. Even though the court objectively have identified the acts of the perpetrator as fulfilling the necessary prerequisite, the court often come to the conclusion that there is a lack of subjective requisites. A shortcoming caused by the prosecutor failing to prove criminal intent regarding that the sexual act is caused by threat or violence.

In an attempt to enlace acts of penal value that are not covered by todays regulation a criminalization of all sexual acts that is performed in lack of free will is suggested in the committee report, A higher level of protection for the sexual integrity. The committee also suggests that the free will needs to be expressed. Violence, compulsion and exploiting of a vulnerable position are kept as elements that indicate that the crime has been committed, not as requirements to reach conviction. In addition the committee suggests an insertion of responsibility for negligence. In the cases where the perpetrator has acted in great carelessness concerning the victim’s will to participate he or she should be held criminally responsible.

In summary the (suggested) Swedish regulation based on consent is expected to expand the possibilities of reaching a conviction in cases where a lack of intention has been an issue. The fact that every person that wants to participate in a sexual act has to express this to be able to engage in such activities (without criminal offence) will presumably eliminate some of the evidential problems in rape-cases not to mention the amount of rapes being prevented. Since there must be an expression of will the perpetrator is encouraged to at a sexual encounter ask the question and at the trial answer the question as to if the victim, apart from threats and violence, really wanted to take part in the act. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Det övergripande syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa bevisproblematiken i våldtäktsmål och undersöka vissa konsekvenser av en potentiell samtyckesreglering i svensk rätt. Med traditionell rättsdogmatisk metod söker jag ge svar på hur en samtyckesreglering skulle kunna antas påverka det svåra bevisläget i våldtäktsmål.

Idag regleras våldtäkt i 6 kap 1 § brottsbalken och brottet består i att någon med hot eller våld tvingar någon till samlag eller därmed jämförlig handling. Detsamma gäller då någon otillbörligt utnyttjar en person som befinner sig i särskilt utsatt situation. Det svåra bevisläget i våldtäktsmål beror delvis på att det saknas objektiv bevisning då det enligt normen endast är gärningsmannen och offret som är närvarande vid... (More)
Det övergripande syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa bevisproblematiken i våldtäktsmål och undersöka vissa konsekvenser av en potentiell samtyckesreglering i svensk rätt. Med traditionell rättsdogmatisk metod söker jag ge svar på hur en samtyckesreglering skulle kunna antas påverka det svåra bevisläget i våldtäktsmål.

Idag regleras våldtäkt i 6 kap 1 § brottsbalken och brottet består i att någon med hot eller våld tvingar någon till samlag eller därmed jämförlig handling. Detsamma gäller då någon otillbörligt utnyttjar en person som befinner sig i särskilt utsatt situation. Det svåra bevisläget i våldtäktsmål beror delvis på att det saknas objektiv bevisning då det enligt normen endast är gärningsmannen och offret som är närvarande vid tidpunkten för övergreppet. På grund av detta är bedömningen i våldtäktsmål begränsad till en ren trovärdighets- och tillförlitlighetsbedömning av parternas utsagor.

Högsta domstolens bedömning av brottet har växlat från att sluta sig till gärningsmäns invändningar om samtycke och en ”ger man sig in i leken får man leken tåla”-attityd till en bedömning baserad på huruvida en kränkning av den sexuella integriteten förekommit i målet. Trots att domskälen under senare år präglas av en modern syn på kvinnans sexualitet resulterar de likväl i friande domar. På grund av att lagrummets utformning kräver uppsåt till rekvisitet tvång föreligger ofta, trots att domstolen fastställt att det rent objektivt rört sig om en våldtäkt, en brist på den subjektiva sidan av brottsrekvisiten. En brist som föranleds av att åklagaren inte lyckats styrka uppsåt till att handlingen framtvingats medelst våld och hot.

För att fånga upp de straffvärda gärningar som faller utanför lagens tillämpningsområde föreslås i betänkandet Ett starkare skydd för den sexuella integriteten kriminalisering av sexuella handlingar som genomförs vid bristande frivillighet. De föreslår vidare att frivilligheten måste komma till uttryck. Rekvisiten våld, tvång och särskilt utsatt situation behålls som faktorer som pekar på icke-frivillighet, inte som krav för att nå en fällande dom. Kommittén föreslår vidare införandet av ett culpöst våldtäktsbrott. I de fall då gärningsmannen kan anses varit grovt oaktsam i förhållande till att samlaget genomförts i avsaknad av frivillighet skall han drabbas av straffansvar.

Sammantaget torde den (eventuella) svenska samtyckesregleringen ge domstolen större möjligheter att fälla till ansvar i fall där det tidigare förelegat uppsåtsbrist. Det faktum att varje person som skall delta i en sexuell handling skall ge uttryck för frivillighet för straffritt sexuellt umgänge torde undanröja en viss bevisproblematik för att inte tala om en icke obetydlig mängd våldtäkter i samhället. Eftersom det måste finnas uttryck för frivillighet uppmanar det gärningsmannen till att vid ett samlag ställa frågan och vid en prövning svara på frågan om offret, bortsett från hot eller våld, verkligen ville delta i den sexuella handlingen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Ravelli, Emelie LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
våldtäkt, sexualbrott, samtycke, samtyckeslag, bevisbörda, bevisvärdering, bevisproblematik
language
Swedish
id
8897304
date added to LUP
2017-02-13 08:21:18
date last changed
2017-02-13 08:21:18
@misc{8897304,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this essay is to shed light on the problems of proving a perpetrator guilty in rape-cases and to examine certain consequences of a future regulation based on consent. Using a traditional judicial method I have sought to answer the question of how a law of consent would affect the difficulties regarding the, from an evidential point of view, challenging position in cases concerning rape. 

Today rape is regulated in 6 chapter 1 § in the criminal code and the crime constitutes when somebody forces another person to intercourse or other sexual act using violence or threat or in other way exploits another person who is in a vulnerable position. The challenge in proving a rapist guilty lies partly within the lack of objective proof since in most rape-cases there is only the perpetrator and the victim present when the alleged crime is committed. For this reason the members of the Court are limited to an assessment based solely on credibility and reliability of the testimonies of the two parties. 

The members of the supreme court have gone from a perpetrator-friendly attitude where they have deduced themselves with the perpetrators argument of consent – to an assessment based on the woman’s right to her own body. Despite the modern features of the grounds for decision the trials often reach a clearing verdict. Even though the court objectively have identified the acts of the perpetrator as fulfilling the necessary prerequisite, the court often come to the conclusion that there is a lack of subjective requisites. A shortcoming caused by the prosecutor failing to prove criminal intent regarding that the sexual act is caused by threat or violence.

In an attempt to enlace acts of penal value that are not covered by todays regulation a criminalization of all sexual acts that is performed in lack of free will is suggested in the committee report, A higher level of protection for the sexual integrity. The committee also suggests that the free will needs to be expressed. Violence, compulsion and exploiting of a vulnerable position are kept as elements that indicate that the crime has been committed, not as requirements to reach conviction. In addition the committee suggests an insertion of responsibility for negligence. In the cases where the perpetrator has acted in great carelessness concerning the victim’s will to participate he or she should be held criminally responsible. 

In summary the (suggested) Swedish regulation based on consent is expected to expand the possibilities of reaching a conviction in cases where a lack of intention has been an issue. The fact that every person that wants to participate in a sexual act has to express this to be able to engage in such activities (without criminal offence) will presumably eliminate some of the evidential problems in rape-cases not to mention the amount of rapes being prevented. Since there must be an expression of will the perpetrator is encouraged to at a sexual encounter ask the question and at the trial answer the question as to if the victim, apart from threats and violence, really wanted to take part in the act.},
  author       = {Ravelli, Emelie},
  keyword      = {våldtäkt,sexualbrott,samtycke,samtyckeslag,bevisbörda,bevisvärdering,bevisproblematik},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Våldtäkt bortom (o)rimligt tvivel? - en progressiv undersökning av bevisproblematiken i våldtäktsmål kontra en potentiell samtyckesreglering},
  year         = {2016},
}