Advanced

Det holografiska testamentet - En kritisk analys av formkraven som uppställs under svåra omständigheter

Magee Mateluna, Niklas LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats belyser den problematik som uppstår när en yttersta vilja åsidosätts på grund av de strikta formkraven som uppställs för ett giltigt testamente. Fokus för detta arbete ligger främst på det holografiska testa- mentet vilket kan upprättas då någon på grund av sjukdom eller nödfall inte förmår upprätta ett ordinärt testamente. År 2013 belystes problematiken i ett rättsfall från Svea Hovrätt. Frågan i målet var om ett sms-meddelande som en ung man skrivit innan han tog livet av sig kunde utgöra ett holografiskt testamente. Vad lagen kräver är att ett holografiskt testamente är egenhän- digt skrivet och undertecknat. I målet var det ostridigt att det var den avlidne mannen som hade skrivit textmeddelandet samt att det gav uttryck... (More)
Denna uppsats belyser den problematik som uppstår när en yttersta vilja åsidosätts på grund av de strikta formkraven som uppställs för ett giltigt testamente. Fokus för detta arbete ligger främst på det holografiska testa- mentet vilket kan upprättas då någon på grund av sjukdom eller nödfall inte förmår upprätta ett ordinärt testamente. År 2013 belystes problematiken i ett rättsfall från Svea Hovrätt. Frågan i målet var om ett sms-meddelande som en ung man skrivit innan han tog livet av sig kunde utgöra ett holografiskt testamente. Vad lagen kräver är att ett holografiskt testamente är egenhän- digt skrivet och undertecknat. I målet var det ostridigt att det var den avlidne mannen som hade skrivit textmeddelandet samt att det gav uttryck för hans yttersta vilja. Domstolen ansåg att testamentet inte var giltigt enbart på den grund att det inte går att underteckna ett sms-meddelande.
Innan 2008 var de danska formkraven för holografiska testamenten i stort sett identiska med de vi har i Sverige idag. Efter lagändringen 2008 slopades formkraven för nödtestamenten för att istället lägga större vikt på testa- mentsgivarens yttersta vilja. En anledning var att det inte ansågs ändamåls- enligt att ett testamente vars uppkomst och äkthet var obestridd, ändå skulle förklaras ogiltigt på grund av att formkraven inte tillgodosetts. En annan anledning var att göra den nya lagen teknikneutral och därmed spegla da- gens samhälle. Idag gäller det för en arvinge som klandrar ett nödtestamente att visa att det inte kan säkerställas att testamentet är uttryck för testaments- givarens vilja samt att det inte är säkert att det är upprättat av denne.
Syftena bakom formkraven i svensk rätt är bland annat att få testamentsgi- varen att fatta ett välgrundat beslut, att säkerställa att viljeförklaringen i tes- tamentet verkställs och att klargöra för testamentets uppkomst i övrigt. Hu- vudsyftet med tolkningen av testamenten är att få testamentsgivarens avsikt och yttersta vilja klarlagd, den så kallade viljeprincipen.
3
Rättsfallet från Svea Hovrätt är ett tydligt exempel på att våra formkrav är för strikta och i många fall motsägelsefulla. Allt det som syftena har att sä- kerställa och skydda var ostridigt i målet och sms-meddelandet var uttryck för den yttersta viljan men blev ändå ogiltigt. Hade detta målet tagits upp i dansk domstol, hade det med största sannolikhet resulterat i ett giltigt testa- mente, vilket är betydligt rimligare utifrån de syften som ligger bakom formkraven och viljeprincipen. Även det faktum att ärvdabalken är relativt gammal och att majoriteten av befolkningen idag innehar tekniska hjälpme- del talar för att vi, med dansk rätt som förebild, bör modernisera den svenska testationsrätten eller åtminstone se över den. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
This essay illustrates the problems which come up when the utmost will gets neglected because the forms prescribed by law have to be fulfilled for a tes- tament to be valid. It focuses foremost on the holographic testament, which can be written in circumstances of sickness or emergencies, when an indi- vidual is unable to write an ordinary testament. In 2013 this problem was illustrated in a case at Svea Hovrätt. The moot question was if a short mes- sage service, composed by a young man just before he took his own life, could constitute a holographic testament. The law requires that a holograph- ic testament is written at one’s own hand with a personal signature. The fact that the man had written the holographic testament and that it... (More)
This essay illustrates the problems which come up when the utmost will gets neglected because the forms prescribed by law have to be fulfilled for a tes- tament to be valid. It focuses foremost on the holographic testament, which can be written in circumstances of sickness or emergencies, when an indi- vidual is unable to write an ordinary testament. In 2013 this problem was illustrated in a case at Svea Hovrätt. The moot question was if a short mes- sage service, composed by a young man just before he took his own life, could constitute a holographic testament. The law requires that a holograph- ic testament is written at one’s own hand with a personal signature. The fact that the man had written the holographic testament and that it manifested his utmost will was, in this case, non-contentious. Still, the court considered the testament invalid due to the fact that a short message service cannot be per- sonally signed.
Until 2008, the Danish forms prescribed by law were broadly identical with the Swedish law today. However, after an amendment of the Danish law in 2008, the forms prescribed by law of a testament written in case of emer- gency were abolished. Instead, focus shifted to the testator’s or testatrix’s utmost will. One reason to why the amendment was made was because it did not seem suitable that a testament, whose origin and authenticity are non-contentious, shall be invalid because the forms prescribed by law are not satisfied. Other reasons were to make the new law technically independ- ent and to reflect today’s society. Nowadays, an heir wanting to contest a testament created in case of emergency, instead has to demonstrate that it is not definite that the testament expresses the testator’s or testatrix’s utmost will. In addition, an uncertainty about if he or she is the real author has to be displayed.
The purposes of the Swedish forms prescribed by law are inter alia to ensure that a testator or testatrix makes a deliberated decision, to guarantee that the
1
utmost will explained in the testament is executed and to make the origin clear. The main purpose of interpreting a testament is to clarify the utmost will of the deceased, the so-called “the principle of will”.
The case at Svea Hovrätt illustrates that the Swedish forms prescribed by law are too strict and sometimes contradictory. Everything the purposes are to ensure and protect were non-contentious in that case and the short mes- sage service was decided to express an utmost will. However, because of the unfulfilled forms, the holographic testament could not be valid. If the same case had been brought into a Danish court, it would probably have led to a valid testament. This would have been far more reasonable considering the purposes of “the principle of will” and the forms prescribed by law. Also, the Swedish Inheritance Code is old and many people use technical aids today. Altogether, with the Danish heritage law as a role model, this sug- gests a modernization or at least a review of the law is in order. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Magee Mateluna, Niklas LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Civilrätt, Formkrav, Testamente, Holografiskt
language
Swedish
id
8897352
date added to LUP
2017-02-13 08:24:45
date last changed
2017-02-13 08:24:45
@misc{8897352,
  abstract     = {This essay illustrates the problems which come up when the utmost will gets neglected because the forms prescribed by law have to be fulfilled for a tes- tament to be valid. It focuses foremost on the holographic testament, which can be written in circumstances of sickness or emergencies, when an indi- vidual is unable to write an ordinary testament. In 2013 this problem was illustrated in a case at Svea Hovrätt. The moot question was if a short mes- sage service, composed by a young man just before he took his own life, could constitute a holographic testament. The law requires that a holograph- ic testament is written at one’s own hand with a personal signature. The fact that the man had written the holographic testament and that it manifested his utmost will was, in this case, non-contentious. Still, the court considered the testament invalid due to the fact that a short message service cannot be per- sonally signed.
Until 2008, the Danish forms prescribed by law were broadly identical with the Swedish law today. However, after an amendment of the Danish law in 2008, the forms prescribed by law of a testament written in case of emer- gency were abolished. Instead, focus shifted to the testator’s or testatrix’s utmost will. One reason to why the amendment was made was because it did not seem suitable that a testament, whose origin and authenticity are non-contentious, shall be invalid because the forms prescribed by law are not satisfied. Other reasons were to make the new law technically independ- ent and to reflect today’s society. Nowadays, an heir wanting to contest a testament created in case of emergency, instead has to demonstrate that it is not definite that the testament expresses the testator’s or testatrix’s utmost will. In addition, an uncertainty about if he or she is the real author has to be displayed.
The purposes of the Swedish forms prescribed by law are inter alia to ensure that a testator or testatrix makes a deliberated decision, to guarantee that the
1
utmost will explained in the testament is executed and to make the origin clear. The main purpose of interpreting a testament is to clarify the utmost will of the deceased, the so-called “the principle of will”.
The case at Svea Hovrätt illustrates that the Swedish forms prescribed by law are too strict and sometimes contradictory. Everything the purposes are to ensure and protect were non-contentious in that case and the short mes- sage service was decided to express an utmost will. However, because of the unfulfilled forms, the holographic testament could not be valid. If the same case had been brought into a Danish court, it would probably have led to a valid testament. This would have been far more reasonable considering the purposes of “the principle of will” and the forms prescribed by law. Also, the Swedish Inheritance Code is old and many people use technical aids today. Altogether, with the Danish heritage law as a role model, this sug- gests a modernization or at least a review of the law is in order.},
  author       = {Magee Mateluna, Niklas},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Civilrätt,Formkrav,Testamente,Holografiskt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Det holografiska testamentet - En kritisk analys av formkraven som uppställs under svåra omständigheter},
  year         = {2016},
}