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Avlägsnande av otillåtna bosättningar - En analys av förslaget om ett nytt avlägsnandeförfarandes överensstämmelse med Europakonventionen

Hjertqvist, Rasmus LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Antalet otillåtna bosättningar har ökat i Sverige på senare tid. Detta har skapat problem för markägarna som vållas kostnader samt förlorar besittningen till sin mark. Möjligheterna för markägare att idag få bosättningarna avlägsnade genom särskild handräckning har ansetts dåligt anpassade för dagens situation. Framför allt därför att markägare idag måste identifiera alla på bosättningen i samband med ansökan om särskild handräckning. Därför tillsattes en utredning som arbetat fram ett förslag som förväntas leda till proposition. Förslaget innebär ett nytt avlägsnandeförfarande där undantag ska kunna göras från kravet på att ansökan ska innehålla identitetsuppgifter.

Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att granska förslaget och analysera... (More)
Antalet otillåtna bosättningar har ökat i Sverige på senare tid. Detta har skapat problem för markägarna som vållas kostnader samt förlorar besittningen till sin mark. Möjligheterna för markägare att idag få bosättningarna avlägsnade genom särskild handräckning har ansetts dåligt anpassade för dagens situation. Framför allt därför att markägare idag måste identifiera alla på bosättningen i samband med ansökan om särskild handräckning. Därför tillsattes en utredning som arbetat fram ett förslag som förväntas leda till proposition. Förslaget innebär ett nytt avlägsnandeförfarande där undantag ska kunna göras från kravet på att ansökan ska innehålla identitetsuppgifter.

Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att granska förslaget och analysera ifall det stämmer överens med våra åtaganden enligt rätten till respekt för hemmet som stadgas i Europakonventionen och, om inte, föreslå hur detta skulle kunna åtgärdas. Detta görs främst genom att jämföra förslaget med konventionstexten och Europadomstolens praxis. Konventionstexten stadgar att inskränkningar av rätten till respekt för hemmet får göras. Det krävs dock att inskränkningen är nödvändig i ett demokratiskt samhälle. Möjligheten att avlägsna människor från deras hem kan enligt Europadomstolen vara nödvändigt i ett demokratiskt samhälle. Viktigt har dock varit att den som kan avlägsnas har möjlighet att få beslutet om avlägsnandet prövat samt att det vid sådan prövning görs en proportionalitetsbedömning.

Min slutsats är att förslaget inte stämmer överens med rätten till respekt för hemmet. Detta framför allt därför att en konventionsenlig proportionalitetsbedömning inte alltid kommer behöva göras vid prövning av beslut om avlägsnande. För att en proportionalitetsbedömning ska vara konventionsenlig krävs det att prövningsmyndigheten beaktar flera omständigheter som är direkt kopplade till den enskilde individen som omfattas av avlägsnandet. Vid en avlägsnandeprocess enligt förslaget kommer kronofogdemyndigheten inte alltid veta vem svaranden är, eftersom markägaren inte alltid behöver identifierat denne. Således kommer kronofogdemyndigheten inte kunna beakta alla omständigheter som behövs för att vara godtagbart enligt Europadomstolen. För att Sverige ska undvika konventionsbrott krävs därför att dessa omständigheter utreds innan beslut om avlägsnande fattas. Då denna utredning inte rimligen kan krävas av markägaren bör denne få hjälp av myndigheter i detta avseende. (Less)
Abstract
The number of illegal settlements has recently started to increase in Sweden. This has caused problems for landowners whose possession of the ground is lost. Landowners possibilities that through Swedish law remove the settlements has been deemed poorly fit for the current situations. Mainly because landowners has to identify everyone who lives in the illegal settlement in order to receive help from Swedish authorities. For these reasons the Swedish minister of justice and migration appointed an investigation to see how the current legislation could be improved. The investigation suggested that there should be exceptions from the requirement that the landowners has to identify all the residents of the illegal settlements in order to... (More)
The number of illegal settlements has recently started to increase in Sweden. This has caused problems for landowners whose possession of the ground is lost. Landowners possibilities that through Swedish law remove the settlements has been deemed poorly fit for the current situations. Mainly because landowners has to identify everyone who lives in the illegal settlement in order to receive help from Swedish authorities. For these reasons the Swedish minister of justice and migration appointed an investigation to see how the current legislation could be improved. The investigation suggested that there should be exceptions from the requirement that the landowners has to identify all the residents of the illegal settlements in order to receive help from Swedish authorities.

The purpose of this essay has been to review the suggestion and discuss whether it fulfills the requirements followed by everyone’s right to respect for their home according to the European convention of human rights. If my conclusion would be that it didn’t, my ambition was also to suggest what changes that could be made. I will do this by comparing the suggestion with the text of the convention and the judicial customs developed by the European court. According to the convention a state may interfere with the right to respect for the home. However this interference must be deemed necessary in a democratic society. According to previous judgements from the European court, legislation allowing authorities to remove residents from their home may be necessary in a democratic society. However the European court has explained that it’s essential that the residents has procedural safeguards. Therefore the individuals affected by a decision of removal must have the possibilities to have the proportionality of such interference determined by an independent tribunal.

My conclusion is that the suggestion does in fact not meet with the requirements according to the European convention and the right to respect for one’s home. Mainly because the authorities deciding on the matter of removal won’t always be able to determine whether the removal is proportionate to its purpose. In order to determine whether the interference is proportionate several considerations has to be taking into account in order to be in compliance with the European convention. Many of these considerations is directly connected to the individual who might fall victim of the removal. However according to the suggestion, this individual will not always be identified, since it won’t always be necessary for the landowners to identify the residents. Thusly these circumstances, which the European court demands be taken into consideration in order for the interference to be in compliance with the European convention, won’t be able to be taken into account. To solve this problem the circumstances surrounding the settlements must be investigated. Since it can’t be demanded that the landowners themselves perform this research, it is my opinion that they should get help from authorities. (Less)
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author
Hjertqvist, Rasmus LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
otillåtna bosättningar, rätten till respekt för hemmet, avlägsnande, avlägsnandeförfarande, rätt till hem, rätt till skydd för hemmet
language
Swedish
id
8897372
date added to LUP
2017-02-08 11:24:43
date last changed
2017-02-08 11:24:43
@misc{8897372,
  abstract     = {The number of illegal settlements has recently started to increase in Sweden. This has caused problems for landowners whose possession of the ground is lost. Landowners possibilities that through Swedish law remove the settlements has been deemed poorly fit for the current situations. Mainly because landowners has to identify everyone who lives in the illegal settlement in order to receive help from Swedish authorities. For these reasons the Swedish minister of justice and migration appointed an investigation to see how the current legislation could be improved. The investigation suggested that there should be exceptions from the requirement that the landowners has to identify all the residents of the illegal settlements in order to receive help from Swedish authorities.

The purpose of this essay has been to review the suggestion and discuss whether it fulfills the requirements followed by everyone’s right to respect for their home according to the European convention of human rights. If my conclusion would be that it didn’t, my ambition was also to suggest what changes that could be made. I will do this by comparing the suggestion with the text of the convention and the judicial customs developed by the European court. According to the convention a state may interfere with the right to respect for the home. However this interference must be deemed necessary in a democratic society. According to previous judgements from the European court, legislation allowing authorities to remove residents from their home may be necessary in a democratic society. However the European court has explained that it’s essential that the residents has procedural safeguards. Therefore the individuals affected by a decision of removal must have the possibilities to have the proportionality of such interference determined by an independent tribunal.

My conclusion is that the suggestion does in fact not meet with the requirements according to the European convention and the right to respect for one’s home. Mainly because the authorities deciding on the matter of removal won’t always be able to determine whether the removal is proportionate to its purpose. In order to determine whether the interference is proportionate several considerations has to be taking into account in order to be in compliance with the European convention. Many of these considerations is directly connected to the individual who might fall victim of the removal. However according to the suggestion, this individual will not always be identified, since it won’t always be necessary for the landowners to identify the residents. Thusly these circumstances, which the European court demands be taken into consideration in order for the interference to be in compliance with the European convention, won’t be able to be taken into account. To solve this problem the circumstances surrounding the settlements must be investigated. Since it can’t be demanded that the landowners themselves perform this research, it is my opinion that they should get help from authorities.},
  author       = {Hjertqvist, Rasmus},
  keyword      = {otillåtna bosättningar,rätten till respekt för hemmet,avlägsnande,avlägsnandeförfarande,rätt till hem,rätt till skydd för hemmet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Avlägsnande av otillåtna bosättningar - En analys av förslaget om ett nytt avlägsnandeförfarandes överensstämmelse med Europakonventionen},
  year         = {2016},
}