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Misstanke om krigsbrott under asylprocessen - Om principen aut dedere aut judicare i svensk rätt och dess tillämpning på folkmordslagen (2014:406)

Schäfer, Björn LU (2016) LAGF03 20162
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sverige har både ett intresse och en skyldighet att inte låta grova krigsbrottsförbrytare få uppehålla sig inom landets gränser utan att prövas straffrättsligt. Enligt reglerna i utlänningslagen kan en särskild situation uppstå då asylsökande som, genom att begå krigsbrott innan sin ankomst till Sverige, exkluderas från rätt till asyl men ändå inte kan återsändas på grund av att han eller hon riskerar att utsättas för tortyr eller dödsstraff.

Enligt folkrättsliga regler finns en allmän rättighet för stater att åtala personer för de grövsta internationella brotten. Brotten som berörs i uppsatsen är folkmord, brott mot mänskligheten och krigsförbrytelser, dessa har jus cogens-status. Genom analys av de internationella förpliktelser som... (More)
Sverige har både ett intresse och en skyldighet att inte låta grova krigsbrottsförbrytare få uppehålla sig inom landets gränser utan att prövas straffrättsligt. Enligt reglerna i utlänningslagen kan en särskild situation uppstå då asylsökande som, genom att begå krigsbrott innan sin ankomst till Sverige, exkluderas från rätt till asyl men ändå inte kan återsändas på grund av att han eller hon riskerar att utsättas för tortyr eller dödsstraff.

Enligt folkrättsliga regler finns en allmän rättighet för stater att åtala personer för de grövsta internationella brotten. Brotten som berörs i uppsatsen är folkmord, brott mot mänskligheten och krigsförbrytelser, dessa har jus cogens-status. Genom analys av de internationella förpliktelser som Sverige har åtagit sig i form av traktater och sedvanerätt, kan konstateras att Sverige också har sådan skyldighet. Denna skyldighet benämns som principen aut dedere aut judicare, att åtala eller utlämna och omfånget av denna skyldighet är definierat i Internationella domstolens praxis Habré-fallet.

Gällande hanteringen av brottsmisstankar under asylprocessen finns officiella instruktioner till handläggarna på Migrationsverket att överlämna ärendet till beslutsfattare med specialkompetens. Vid konstaterad misstanke lämnas fallet vidare till Krigsbrottskommissionen hos polisen och en straffrättslig process inleds i samarbete med Internationella åklagarkammaren i Stockholm.

I svensk lagstiftning är brotten kriminaliserade genom folkmordslagen. För att åtala för brott som begåtts utomlands krävs som huvudregel åtalsförordnande från regeringen.

Sammantaget når den svenska processen upp till de krav som etablerats i Internationella domstolens praxis. Viss förbättringspotential skulle kunna konstateras gällande förfarandet vid åtalsförordnande, vilket det finns lagförslag på. (Less)
Abstract
Sweden has both an interest and an obligation not to let perpetrators of grave war crimes reside within the borders of the state without being tried in the penal system. According to the rules in the Swedish Aliens Act a specific situation may arise when an asylum seeker, who have committed such grave war crimes before his or her arrival to Sweden, have been excluded from his or her right to asylum but nevertheless cannot be returned to the origin state due to risk of becoming victim of torture or death penalty.

According to international law there is a general right for states to prosecute for the most serious international crimes. The crimes involved in this essay are genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, these have the... (More)
Sweden has both an interest and an obligation not to let perpetrators of grave war crimes reside within the borders of the state without being tried in the penal system. According to the rules in the Swedish Aliens Act a specific situation may arise when an asylum seeker, who have committed such grave war crimes before his or her arrival to Sweden, have been excluded from his or her right to asylum but nevertheless cannot be returned to the origin state due to risk of becoming victim of torture or death penalty.

According to international law there is a general right for states to prosecute for the most serious international crimes. The crimes involved in this essay are genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, these have the status of jus cogens. By analysing international commitments that Sweden has undertaken in the form of treaties and customary law, it is established that Sweden also has this obligation. This obligation is titled aut dedere aut judicare, the obligation to prosecute or to extradite, and the scope of thisobligation is defined through the precedential ruling from the International Court of Justice called the Habré-case.

The handling of suspected war crimes during an asylum process is managed through instructions for the handlers at the Swedish Migration Agency. The handlers are to submit the case to a decision-maker with special competence in that area of expertise. When suspicions are confirmed the case is to be submitted to the War Crimes Commission at the Swedish Police and criminal proceedings are to be initiated in cooperation with the International public prosecution office in Stockholm.

In Swedish national law war crimes are criminalized through the Genocide Act. As a general rule, to prosecute for offenses committed outside Sweden, a decision to prosecute is required from the Government.

All together the Swedish process for handling suspected war criminals is sufficient according to the standards that are defined in the precedency from the International Court of Justice. Some room for improvement could be said to exist when discussing the decision to prosecute, for which there is a bill for a new act. (Less)
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author
Schäfer, Björn LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20162
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
criminal law, straffrätt, public international law, folkrätt
language
Swedish
id
8897399
date added to LUP
2017-02-13 20:33:30
date last changed
2017-02-13 20:33:30
@misc{8897399,
  abstract     = {Sweden has both an interest and an obligation not to let perpetrators of grave war crimes reside within the borders of the state without being tried in the penal system. According to the rules in the Swedish Aliens Act a specific situation may arise when an asylum seeker, who have committed such grave war crimes before his or her arrival to Sweden, have been excluded from his or her right to asylum but nevertheless cannot be returned to the origin state due to risk of becoming victim of torture or death penalty.

According to international law there is a general right for states to prosecute for the most serious international crimes. The crimes involved in this essay are genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, these have the status of jus cogens. By analysing international commitments that Sweden has undertaken in the form of treaties and customary law, it is established that Sweden also has this obligation. This obligation is titled aut dedere aut judicare, the obligation to prosecute or to extradite, and the scope of thisobligation is defined through the precedential ruling from the International Court of Justice called the Habré-case.

The handling of suspected war crimes during an asylum process is managed through instructions for the handlers at the Swedish Migration Agency. The handlers are to submit the case to a decision-maker with special competence in that area of expertise. When suspicions are confirmed the case is to be submitted to the War Crimes Commission at the Swedish Police and criminal proceedings are to be initiated in cooperation with the International public prosecution office in Stockholm.

In Swedish national law war crimes are criminalized through the Genocide Act. As a general rule, to prosecute for offenses committed outside Sweden, a decision to prosecute is required from the Government. 

All together the Swedish process for handling suspected war criminals is sufficient according to the standards that are defined in the precedency from the International Court of Justice. Some room for improvement could be said to exist when discussing the decision to prosecute, for which there is a bill for a new act.},
  author       = {Schäfer, Björn},
  keyword      = {criminal law,straffrätt,public international law,folkrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Misstanke om krigsbrott under asylprocessen - Om principen aut dedere aut judicare i svensk rätt och dess tillämpning på folkmordslagen (2014:406)},
  year         = {2016},
}