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Återfall i brottslighet efter sluten ungdomsvård - En studie om hantering av unga lagförbrytare

Erlandsson, Nina LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Recidivism has always been a common problem. Young people, who are convicted and subjected to closed institutional youth care detention (LSU) runs, due to their young age, a particularly high risk to reoffend. Swedish criminal statistics shows that as many as 60 percent relapse into crime within a year. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the causes that can be attributed to relapse into crime after being subjected to closed institutional youth care detention. This means that the essay seeks to clarify the motives behind the imposition of the sanction. Subsequently, I will examine whether the result of the sanction has become what the legislature intended. The questions are answered by processing legislative history, laws,... (More)
Recidivism has always been a common problem. Young people, who are convicted and subjected to closed institutional youth care detention (LSU) runs, due to their young age, a particularly high risk to reoffend. Swedish criminal statistics shows that as many as 60 percent relapse into crime within a year. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the causes that can be attributed to relapse into crime after being subjected to closed institutional youth care detention. This means that the essay seeks to clarify the motives behind the imposition of the sanction. Subsequently, I will examine whether the result of the sanction has become what the legislature intended. The questions are answered by processing legislative history, laws, statistics and criminal literature. The results of the examination are then problematized from a critical criminological perspective.

LSU was introduced as a result of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1999. The law provides an alternative sanction to imprisonment for persons under 18. The idea behind the introduction was to contribute adequate care and a well-adapted treatment for offenders younger than 18 years. The legislator's intention was also to contribute with general and individual prevention, and as such prevent recidivism. Criminal statistics have shown that the sanction has not complied with individual prevention to the extent that the legislator intended. On the contrary the proportion of relapse has only increased. Consequently, the following question arises: Can closed institutional youth care detention, in cooperation with reasons related to the youths themselves, be a contributing factor to the increased percentage of recidivism?

The conclusion of my thesis shows that youth crime can occur due to lack of social ties, unfavorable conditions at home, low self-control, previous crime, early crime debut, or a an ill-balanced sanction. If the institutional care detention is to be as effective as possible, it requires an individualized care with the child's best interest at heart. A good individualized care is best achieved through a close cooperation between the social service and pro-social contacts. It is important that institutional placement is as open as the situation may allow. Functioning time at the institution and good contact with family and friends is also related to better treatment results. To make the proportion of recidivism decrease, it requires greater efforts to evaluate and greater efforts to improve and secure adjustment in accordance with effective treatment theories. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Återfall i brottslighet har under alla tider varit ett vanligt förekommande problem. Unga personer, dömda till sluten ungdomsvård, löper på grund av sin låga ålder extra stor risk att återfalla i brott. Svensk statistik uppvisar att så många som 60 procent återfaller i brottslighet redan inom ett års tid. Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vilka orsaker som kan hänföras till återfall i brottslighet efter sluten ungdomsvård. Som i en del av detta söker framställningen klarlägga motiven bakom införandet av påföljden. Därefter utreds om resultatet av påföljden har blivit som lagstiftaren tänkt sig. Frågorna besvaras genom en bearbetning av förarbeten, lagar, statistik och straffrättslig litteratur. Resultatet av undersökningen problematiseras ur... (More)
Återfall i brottslighet har under alla tider varit ett vanligt förekommande problem. Unga personer, dömda till sluten ungdomsvård, löper på grund av sin låga ålder extra stor risk att återfalla i brott. Svensk statistik uppvisar att så många som 60 procent återfaller i brottslighet redan inom ett års tid. Uppsatsens syfte är att utreda vilka orsaker som kan hänföras till återfall i brottslighet efter sluten ungdomsvård. Som i en del av detta söker framställningen klarlägga motiven bakom införandet av påföljden. Därefter utreds om resultatet av påföljden har blivit som lagstiftaren tänkt sig. Frågorna besvaras genom en bearbetning av förarbeten, lagar, statistik och straffrättslig litteratur. Resultatet av undersökningen problematiseras ur ett kritiskt kriminologiskt perspektiv.

LSU infördes till följd av FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter (barnkonventionen) år 1999. Lagen erbjuder en alternativ påföljd till fängelse för personer under 18 år. Tanken bakom införandet var att påföljden skulle bidra med adekvat vård och en väl anpassad behandling för unga lagöverträdare. Lagstiftarens intention var att med hjälp av allmän- och individualpreventiva funktioner förebygga återfall i brott. Statistik har emellertid visat att påföljdens syfte inte har uppnåtts i den utsträckning som lagstiftaren tänkt sig. Andel återfall har istället ökat sedan påföljdens införande. Av denna anledning uppkommer frågan: Kan sluten ungdomsvård, i samverkan med orsaker relaterade till de unga själva, vara en bidragande faktor till ökad andel återfall i brott?

Undersökningen visar att ungdomskriminalitet såväl kan bero på avsaknad av sociala band som ogynnsamma hemförhållanden, låg självkontroll, tidigare brottslighet, tidig brottsdebut eller en dåligt anpassad påföljd. För att institutionsbehandlingen ska bli så effektiv som möjligt krävs en individuellt anpassad vård med hänsyn till barnets bästa. En sådan vård uppnås bäst genom ett nära samarbete med socialtjänst, prosociala kontakter och det i övrigt omgivande samhället. Det är viktigt att institutionsplaceringen blir så öppen som situationen kan tillåta. Fungerande institutionsperioder och god kontakt med familj och vänner är relaterat till ett bättre behandlingsresultat. För att andel återfall i brottslighet i fortsättningen ska minska, behövs bättre insatser för utvärdering och bättre insatser för att säkra anpassning i enlighet med effektiva behandlingsteorier. (Less)
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author
Erlandsson, Nina LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt, criminal law, återfall, ungdomskriminalitet
language
Swedish
id
8907531
date added to LUP
2017-06-28 09:34:09
date last changed
2017-06-28 09:34:09
@misc{8907531,
  abstract     = {Recidivism has always been a common problem. Young people, who are convicted and subjected to closed institutional youth care detention (LSU) runs, due to their young age, a particularly high risk to reoffend. Swedish criminal statistics shows that as many as 60 percent relapse into crime within a year. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the causes that can be attributed to relapse into crime after being subjected to closed institutional youth care detention. This means that the essay seeks to clarify the motives behind the imposition of the sanction. Subsequently, I will examine whether the result of the sanction has become what the legislature intended. The questions are answered by processing legislative history, laws, statistics and criminal literature. The results of the examination are then problematized from a critical criminological perspective.

LSU was introduced as a result of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1999. The law provides an alternative sanction to imprisonment for persons under 18. The idea behind the introduction was to contribute adequate care and a well-adapted treatment for offenders younger than 18 years. The legislator's intention was also to contribute with general and individual prevention, and as such prevent recidivism. Criminal statistics have shown that the sanction has not complied with individual prevention to the extent that the legislator intended. On the contrary the proportion of relapse has only increased. Consequently, the following question arises: Can closed institutional youth care detention, in cooperation with reasons related to the youths themselves, be a contributing factor to the increased percentage of recidivism?

The conclusion of my thesis shows that youth crime can occur due to lack of social ties, unfavorable conditions at home, low self-control, previous crime, early crime debut, or a an ill-balanced sanction. If the institutional care detention is to be as effective as possible, it requires an individualized care with the child's best interest at heart. A good individualized care is best achieved through a close cooperation between the social service and pro-social contacts. It is important that institutional placement is as open as the situation may allow. Functioning time at the institution and good contact with family and friends is also related to better treatment results. To make the proportion of recidivism decrease, it requires greater efforts to evaluate and greater efforts to improve and secure adjustment in accordance with effective treatment theories.},
  author       = {Erlandsson, Nina},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,criminal law,återfall,ungdomskriminalitet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Återfall i brottslighet efter sluten ungdomsvård - En studie om hantering av unga lagförbrytare},
  year         = {2017},
}