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På jakt efter näthatarna - En utredande analys om rättsväsendets hantering av hatbrott på internet

Kringstad, Albin LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
This paper is set out to investigate and analyze how the judicial system handles hate crime committed on the internet. In 2013 the Swedish national council of crime prevention (Brå) reported that the clearance rate in terms of hate crime committed on the internet is very low. Hence the paper continues with identifying the causes of the low clearance rate and the shortcomings the judicial system possesses on the area. To compensate the shortcomings that has been identified a few proposals of amendment is presented in the concluding part of this paper.
The term we colloquially call net hate is no legal term and thus not something one can be prosecuted for. Regardless of that, a lot of what can be classified as net hate is illegal. The... (More)
This paper is set out to investigate and analyze how the judicial system handles hate crime committed on the internet. In 2013 the Swedish national council of crime prevention (Brå) reported that the clearance rate in terms of hate crime committed on the internet is very low. Hence the paper continues with identifying the causes of the low clearance rate and the shortcomings the judicial system possesses on the area. To compensate the shortcomings that has been identified a few proposals of amendment is presented in the concluding part of this paper.
The term we colloquially call net hate is no legal term and thus not something one can be prosecuted for. Regardless of that, a lot of what can be classified as net hate is illegal. The crimes I chose to classify as hate crime in this paper was determined by Brå in 2007 as the most common types of hate crime. I ignored crimes of violence since they’re not committable through the internet. Thus this paper is limited to the following crimes; unlawful threat, molestation, defamation, insult and agitation against an ethnic or national group.
The obvious shortcomings I’ve been able to identify as for the judicial systems handling of net hate is mainly divided into two main categories. The first obvious flaw is the police deficient ability to investigate the crimes to the extent that a conviction is possible. This problem is mainly due to inadequate cooperation with the internet – companies holding the necessary information for the solution of many crimes. Lack of knowledge within the police investigating operation is also a reason why the clearance rate is so low. The requisitors simply does not know how to go about to secure necessary evidence. In the concluding chapter of this paper a few proposals for amendment in the police operation is presented. The second category as for the judicial systems flaws is derived to the current legislation regarding net hate. This issue partly derives from the outdated legislation in the penal code. The current legislation contains notions which partly aren’t relevant to describe the actions which should be criminal with today’s conceptualization. The second issue regarding the legislation is the special rules of prosecution connected to the defamation – crimes. As a rule, the injured person is supposed to bring legal action all by himself. Only by exception is a prosecutor able to overtake the legal actions. Bills to modernize the penal code have been put forward by the government and should be voted through. Beyond this, I suggest that the time is right to remove the special rules of prosecution connected to defamation- crimes and let the judicial system take full responsibility. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna uppsats utreds och analyseras hur rättsväsendet hanterar hatbrott begångna på internet. År 2013 rapporterade Brottsförebyggande rådet att personuppklarningen vad gäller hatbrott begångna på internet är mycket låg. Följaktligen fortsätter uppsatsen med att identifiera orsakerna till den låga personuppklarningen samt de brister rättsväsendet besitter på området. I avslutande del av uppsatsen presenteras även några förslag till förändring för att kompensera för de brister som identifierats.
Det som vi i dagligt tal kallar näthat är i sig ingen juridisk term, och således alltså inget man kan lagföras för. Trots allt är mycket av det som kan rubriceras som näthat olagligt. De brottstyper jag valt att rubricera som hatbrott i denna... (More)
I denna uppsats utreds och analyseras hur rättsväsendet hanterar hatbrott begångna på internet. År 2013 rapporterade Brottsförebyggande rådet att personuppklarningen vad gäller hatbrott begångna på internet är mycket låg. Följaktligen fortsätter uppsatsen med att identifiera orsakerna till den låga personuppklarningen samt de brister rättsväsendet besitter på området. I avslutande del av uppsatsen presenteras även några förslag till förändring för att kompensera för de brister som identifierats.
Det som vi i dagligt tal kallar näthat är i sig ingen juridisk term, och således alltså inget man kan lagföras för. Trots allt är mycket av det som kan rubriceras som näthat olagligt. De brottstyper jag valt att rubricera som hatbrott i denna uppsats angavs 2007 av Brå som de vanligaste typerna av hatbrott. Jag har bortsett från våldsbrott eftersom våld via internet i nuläget ej är ogenomförbart. Uppsatsen begränsas således till följande brottstyper; olaga hot, ofredande, förtal, förolämpning samt hets mot folkgrupp.
De uppenbara brister som går att identifiera vad gäller rättsväsendets hantering av hatbrott på internet går i huvudsak att dela upp i två olika kategorier. Den första uppenbara bristen gäller polisens avsaknade förmåga att i många fall utreda brotten till den grad att fällande dom är möjlig. Detta problem beror i mångt och mycket på bristfälligt samarbete med de internetföretag som besitter nödvändig information för brottens lösning. Även bristande kunskap inom polisens utredande verksamhet gör att många brott inte klaras upp. Det är helt enkelt så att förundersökningsledaren ofta inte vet hur hen ska gå till väga för att säkra upp nödvändig bevisning. I avslutande kapitel av denna uppsats presenteras några förslag till hur detta problem kan avhjälpas.
Den andra kategorin vad gäller rättsväsendets brister härrör sig till lagstiftningen på området. Detta problem rör delvis den omoderna lagstiftningen i de aktuella straffbestämmelserna. Den gällande lagtexten innehåller delvis begrepp som inte i alla delar i dag är relevanta för att beskriva de handlingar som bör vara. Det andra problemet vad gäller lagstiftningen rör ärekränkningsbrotten och den speciella åtalsregel som är kopplad till dessa. Som huvudregel gäller att det endast är målsäganden själv som får föra talan i dessa fall. Endast i undantagsfall ska ärekränkningsbrotten föras som allmänt åtal. Lagförslag för att modernisera straffbestämmelserna har lagts fram av regeringen och bör röstas igenom. Utöver det föreslår jag att det ligger i tiden att de speciella åtalsreglerna vid ärekränkningsbrott stryks helt och ansvaret istället överlåts på rättsväsendet. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kringstad, Albin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt, hatbrott, hatbrott på internet
language
Swedish
id
8907729
date added to LUP
2017-06-28 09:33:43
date last changed
2017-06-28 09:33:43
@misc{8907729,
  abstract     = {This paper is set out to investigate and analyze how the judicial system handles hate crime committed on the internet. In 2013 the Swedish national council of crime prevention (Brå) reported that the clearance rate in terms of hate crime committed on the internet is very low. Hence the paper continues with identifying the causes of the low clearance rate and the shortcomings the judicial system possesses on the area. To compensate the shortcomings that has been identified a few proposals of amendment is presented in the concluding part of this paper.
The term we colloquially call net hate is no legal term and thus not something one can be prosecuted for. Regardless of that, a lot of what can be classified as net hate is illegal. The crimes I chose to classify as hate crime in this paper was determined by Brå in 2007 as the most common types of hate crime. I ignored crimes of violence since they’re not committable through the internet. Thus this paper is limited to the following crimes; unlawful threat, molestation, defamation, insult and agitation against an ethnic or national group.
The obvious shortcomings I’ve been able to identify as for the judicial systems handling of net hate is mainly divided into two main categories. The first obvious flaw is the police deficient ability to investigate the crimes to the extent that a conviction is possible. This problem is mainly due to inadequate cooperation with the internet – companies holding the necessary information for the solution of many crimes. Lack of knowledge within the police investigating operation is also a reason why the clearance rate is so low. The requisitors simply does not know how to go about to secure necessary evidence. In the concluding chapter of this paper a few proposals for amendment in the police operation is presented. The second category as for the judicial systems flaws is derived to the current legislation regarding net hate. This issue partly derives from the outdated legislation in the penal code. The current legislation contains notions which partly aren’t relevant to describe the actions which should be criminal with today’s conceptualization. The second issue regarding the legislation is the special rules of prosecution connected to the defamation – crimes. As a rule, the injured person is supposed to bring legal action all by himself. Only by exception is a prosecutor able to overtake the legal actions. Bills to modernize the penal code have been put forward by the government and should be voted through. Beyond this, I suggest that the time is right to remove the special rules of prosecution connected to defamation- crimes and let the judicial system take full responsibility.},
  author       = {Kringstad, Albin},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,hatbrott,hatbrott på internet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {På jakt efter näthatarna - En utredande analys om rättsväsendets hantering av hatbrott på internet},
  year         = {2017},
}