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Möjligheten till kollektivavtalsliknande villkor i offentlig upphandling

Wagner, Johanna LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det primära syftet med offentlig upphandling har varit att på bästa sätt hushålla med den offentliga sektorns pengar, varpå det avgörande för huruvida en anbudsgivare tilldelas ett kontrakt ofta är ifall den tillhandahåller den upphandlade tjänsten till lägst pris. Det har enligt kritiker lett till att arbetsgivare som betalar sämre löner och färre förmåner till sina anställda premieras då deras lägre omkostnader möjliggör att lägga lägre anbud och därmed vinna fler kontrakt. Idag ställer därför en del kommuner krav på att vinnande leverantörer ska tillförsäkra sina arbetstagare villkor i nivå med rådande kollektivavtal.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda ifall sådana krav är förenliga med gällande rätt och undersöka vilka... (More)
Det primära syftet med offentlig upphandling har varit att på bästa sätt hushålla med den offentliga sektorns pengar, varpå det avgörande för huruvida en anbudsgivare tilldelas ett kontrakt ofta är ifall den tillhandahåller den upphandlade tjänsten till lägst pris. Det har enligt kritiker lett till att arbetsgivare som betalar sämre löner och färre förmåner till sina anställda premieras då deras lägre omkostnader möjliggör att lägga lägre anbud och därmed vinna fler kontrakt. Idag ställer därför en del kommuner krav på att vinnande leverantörer ska tillförsäkra sina arbetstagare villkor i nivå med rådande kollektivavtal.

Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda ifall sådana krav är förenliga med gällande rätt och undersöka vilka begränsningar som finns. Genom att genomgående återkomma till en upphandling av persontransporter genomförd av Stockholms stad, diskuteras gällande rätt i förhållande till en faktisk upphandling samtidigt som regelverket kommenteras teoretiskt. Gällande rätt diskuteras utifrån både ett svenskt och ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv, med tyngdpunkt på bland annat sociala hänsyns utrymme i lagstiftningen och i förhållande till utstationering. Relevanta rättskällor är framförallt LOU-direktivet 2014/24/EU och utstationeringsdirektivet 96/71/EG, samt lagen (2016:1145) om offentlig upphandling. Även rättspraxis och allmänna unionsrättsliga principer har en betydande roll i framställningen.

Genom det nya upphandlingsdirektivet har medlemsstaterna i sin nationella rätt förpliktigats att införa ökade möjligheter för upphandlande myndigheter att beakta sociala hänsyn. Genomförandet av direktivet har inte varit konfliktfritt men de bestämmelser som rör uppsatsens omfång bedöms ha införlivats på ett fullgott sätt.

Huruvida kollektivavtalsliknande villkor omfattas av begreppet sociala hänsyn har bedömts med bakgrund i allmänna principer och praxis. Upphandlingar vars förfrågningsunderlag tydligt och uttömmande uppställer kollektivavtalsliknande villkor är som huvudregel förenliga med gällande rätt så länge upphandlingen inte har ett bestämt gränsöverskridande syfte. Ifall ett sådant finns kan istället endast utstationeringens hårda kärna krävas. Denna hårda kärna kan dock utgöras antingen av de lagstadgade miniminivåerna i utstationeringslagen, eller miniminivåerna i ett centralt och branschrelevant kollektivavtal. (Less)
Abstract
The primary purpose of public procurement is to spend money from the public sector wisely and efficiently and thereby reduce waste. The purpose creates a situation where the contract award decision is based primarily on lowest price. According to critics, this leads to a situation where employers who provide their employees with fewer benefits and lower wages than the national average have an advantage over their competitors since they have lower expenditure and thereby can submit a more competitive tender. Due to this some municipalities require employers who wish to compete for contracts to provide their workers with conditions in line with those found in Swedish collective agreements.

The purpose of this essay is to examine if such... (More)
The primary purpose of public procurement is to spend money from the public sector wisely and efficiently and thereby reduce waste. The purpose creates a situation where the contract award decision is based primarily on lowest price. According to critics, this leads to a situation where employers who provide their employees with fewer benefits and lower wages than the national average have an advantage over their competitors since they have lower expenditure and thereby can submit a more competitive tender. Due to this some municipalities require employers who wish to compete for contracts to provide their workers with conditions in line with those found in Swedish collective agreements.

The purpose of this essay is to examine if such requirements are compatible with established law and investigate the limitations of such requirements. By continually commenting on a certain procurement carried out by Stockholms stad where such requirements were included, the paper will discuss established law though a real-world example as well as on a theoretical level. Both Swedish and EU-law will be considered, with emphasis on the scope of social considerations and posting of workers. The primary sources of law are the procurement directive 2014/24/EU, the directive concerning posting of workers 96/71/EG, alongside The Swedish Procurement Act (LOU). Additionally, case law and general principles also have an important role in the paper.

Through the new procurement directive, member states have become obligated to introduce increased possibilities for contracting authorities to require social considerations. The implementation of the directive has not been conflict-free, but the provisions of concern for the topic of the paper have been determined to have been implemented fully.

The evaluation of whether conditions in line with collective agreements are included in the term social considerations has been made by analyzing general principles and case law. Procurements in which the tender documents clearly and comprehensively state what conditions are to be met, are generally compatible with established law if the procurement does not have a certain cross-border interest. If there is a certain cross-border interest, only the hard core can be demanded. The hard core comprises either the minimum levels detailed in the law of posting of workers (utstationeringslagen) or the minimum levels found in a central and industry relevant collective agreement. (Less)
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author
Wagner, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
arbetsrätt, EU-rätt, konkurrensrätt, offentlig upphandling, kollektivavtal, kollektivavtalsliknande villkor
language
Swedish
id
8907845
date added to LUP
2017-06-29 10:00:41
date last changed
2017-06-29 10:00:41
@misc{8907845,
  abstract     = {The primary purpose of public procurement is to spend money from the public sector wisely and efficiently and thereby reduce waste. The purpose creates a situation where the contract award decision is based primarily on lowest price. According to critics, this leads to a situation where employers who provide their employees with fewer benefits and lower wages than the national average have an advantage over their competitors since they have lower expenditure and thereby can submit a more competitive tender. Due to this some municipalities require employers who wish to compete for contracts to provide their workers with conditions in line with those found in Swedish collective agreements. 

The purpose of this essay is to examine if such requirements are compatible with established law and investigate the limitations of such requirements. By continually commenting on a certain procurement carried out by Stockholms stad where such requirements were included, the paper will discuss established law though a real-world example as well as on a theoretical level. Both Swedish and EU-law will be considered, with emphasis on the scope of social considerations and posting of workers. The primary sources of law are the procurement directive 2014/24/EU, the directive concerning posting of workers 96/71/EG, alongside The Swedish Procurement Act (LOU). Additionally, case law and general principles also have an important role in the paper. 

Through the new procurement directive, member states have become obligated to introduce increased possibilities for contracting authorities to require social considerations. The implementation of the directive has not been conflict-free, but the provisions of concern for the topic of the paper have been determined to have been implemented fully.

The evaluation of whether conditions in line with collective agreements are included in the term social considerations has been made by analyzing general principles and case law. Procurements in which the tender documents clearly and comprehensively state what conditions are to be met, are generally compatible with established law if the procurement does not have a certain cross-border interest. If there is a certain cross-border interest, only the hard core can be demanded. The hard core comprises either the minimum levels detailed in the law of posting of workers (utstationeringslagen) or the minimum levels found in a central and industry relevant collective agreement.},
  author       = {Wagner, Johanna},
  keyword      = {arbetsrätt,EU-rätt,konkurrensrätt,offentlig upphandling,kollektivavtal,kollektivavtalsliknande villkor},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Möjligheten till kollektivavtalsliknande villkor i offentlig upphandling},
  year         = {2017},
}