Advanced

Yrkesmässig fotografering med drönare och skyddet för enskildas personliga integritet

Westermann, Anneli LU (2017) LAGF03 20171
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract
Drones are unmanned aerial vehicles that are controlled from the ground. From having been used at first solely for military purposes, they have spread to civil businesses over the last few years, for example to help at property inspections. Through HFD 2016 ref. 71 I it was decided that cameras mounted on drones are considered as surveillance cameras and require permits according to the camera surveillance law.

The purpose of the camera surveillance law is to provide for the need for camera surveillance and at the same time protect the personal integrity of individuals. This essay puts the interest for the personal integrity of individuals against the interest for professional drone pilots to fly drones in their business.

The term... (More)
Drones are unmanned aerial vehicles that are controlled from the ground. From having been used at first solely for military purposes, they have spread to civil businesses over the last few years, for example to help at property inspections. Through HFD 2016 ref. 71 I it was decided that cameras mounted on drones are considered as surveillance cameras and require permits according to the camera surveillance law.

The purpose of the camera surveillance law is to provide for the need for camera surveillance and at the same time protect the personal integrity of individuals. This essay puts the interest for the personal integrity of individuals against the interest for professional drone pilots to fly drones in their business.

The term “personal integrity” is not defined in Swedish law. In this essay, the theory of Strömholm is being used, which states that the personal integrity consists of the interest of individuals to have sole power to regulate the flow of personal information about themselves and to regulate the usage of that information. The law protects the personal integrity through a broad application, the requirement to obtain permit for surveillance cameras that allows the authorities to control the camera beforehand, and a need for the camera user to inform the individuals captured on camera that they are subject to surveillance. Furthermore, in order to be granted permit according to the principle of overbalance, the surveillance must be formed in a way that impedes on the integrity of individuals as little as possible.

The opposite interest in the framework of this essay is the interest of professional drone pilots to carry out drone flight missions in their business. In the drone branch there exists a fear that the broad application of the camera surveillance law leading to cameras on drones being called “surveillance cameras”, can give the public negative associations which will damage the development of the profession. The compulsory permit is followed by fees and processing times, which complicates the missions and make them more expensive. The compulsory information that must be given to individuals has in practice been ensured by terms in the permits. Through the principle of overbalance, the possibility for professionals to take on commercial missions has become difficult, because the law only allows for surveillance if it is needed for a social interest.

In conclusion, the camera surveillance law weighs the interests against each other with different importance in the different elements of the law to find a reasonable balance. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Drönare är obemannade luftfartyg som vanligtvis fjärrstyrs från marken. Från att ursprungligen ha brukats i militär verksamhet har drönare de senaste åren börjat spridas till civila näringsverksamheter, t.ex. inspektion av fastigheter. Genom HFD 2016 ref. 71 I fastställde Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen att kameror monterade på drönare är övervakningskameror, och därför är tillståndspliktiga enligt kameraövervakningslagen.

Kameraövervakningslagen har till syfte att tillgodose samhällets behov av kameraövervakning samtidigt som skyddet för de enskildas personliga integritet säkerställs. Denna uppsats undersöker avvägningen mellan skyddet för den personliga integriteten av enskilda som övervakas och det motstående intresset som... (More)
Drönare är obemannade luftfartyg som vanligtvis fjärrstyrs från marken. Från att ursprungligen ha brukats i militär verksamhet har drönare de senaste åren börjat spridas till civila näringsverksamheter, t.ex. inspektion av fastigheter. Genom HFD 2016 ref. 71 I fastställde Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen att kameror monterade på drönare är övervakningskameror, och därför är tillståndspliktiga enligt kameraövervakningslagen.

Kameraövervakningslagen har till syfte att tillgodose samhällets behov av kameraövervakning samtidigt som skyddet för de enskildas personliga integritet säkerställs. Denna uppsats undersöker avvägningen mellan skyddet för den personliga integriteten av enskilda som övervakas och det motstående intresset som yrkesverksamma drönarpiloter har att i professionellt syfte fotografera eller filma med drönare.

Den personliga integriteten har ingen lagstadgad definition. I detta arbete används Strömholms definition att enskildas personliga integritet utgörs av deras intresse att själv reglera dels flödet av personlig information som utgår ifrån honom eller henne, dels nyttjandet av denna information. Lagen skyddar enskildas personliga integritet genom att den har ett brett tillämpningsområde, ett tillståndsförfarande som möjliggör förhandskontroll av övervakningskameran och en upplysningsplikt för brukaren att göra enskilda som filmas eller fotograferas uppmärksamma på att övervakning sker. Vidare måste kameraövervakningen utformas på ett integritetsvänligt sätt för att få ett beviljat tillstånd enligt överviktsprincipen, d.v.s. efter en avvägning mellan de motstående intressena.

Det motstående intresset i ramen för denna uppsats är yrkesverksamma drönarpiloters intresse att utföra uppdrag från kunder i sin näringsverksamhet. Inom drönarbranschen finns det en rädsla för att definitionen av kamerorna som övervakningskameror ska medföra negativa associationer vilket kan skada utvecklingen av yrket. Tillståndsförfarandet medför en avgift och handläggningstider som kan försvåra yrkesverksamheten. Kraven på upplysning har i praxis dock tillgodosetts genom tydliga villkor i tillstånden. Genom överviktsprincipen faller i princip möjligheten bort för yrkesverksamma att ta emot uppdrag med kommersiella syften, då det för tillstånd enligt lagen krävs att övervakningen tillgodoser ett samhälleligt intresse. Kameraövervakningslagen väger alltså intressena emot varandra med olika vikt i lagens olika moment för att hitta en rimlig avvägning. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Westermann, Anneli LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20171
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
förvaltningsrätt, drönare, personlig integritet, enskildas personliga integritet, kameraövervakningslagen, kameraövervakning
language
Swedish
id
8907912
date added to LUP
2017-06-29 09:59:16
date last changed
2017-06-29 09:59:16
@misc{8907912,
  abstract     = {Drones are unmanned aerial vehicles that are controlled from the ground. From having been used at first solely for military purposes, they have spread to civil businesses over the last few years, for example to help at property inspections. Through HFD 2016 ref. 71 I it was decided that cameras mounted on drones are considered as surveillance cameras and require permits according to the camera surveillance law. 

The purpose of the camera surveillance law is to provide for the need for camera surveillance and at the same time protect the personal integrity of individuals. This essay puts the interest for the personal integrity of individuals against the interest for professional drone pilots to fly drones in their business. 

The term “personal integrity” is not defined in Swedish law. In this essay, the theory of Strömholm is being used, which states that the personal integrity consists of the interest of individuals to have sole power to regulate the flow of personal information about themselves and to regulate the usage of that information. The law protects the personal integrity through a broad application, the requirement to obtain permit for surveillance cameras that allows the authorities to control the camera beforehand, and a need for the camera user to inform the individuals captured on camera that they are subject to surveillance. Furthermore, in order to be granted permit according to the principle of overbalance, the surveillance must be formed in a way that impedes on the integrity of individuals as little as possible. 

The opposite interest in the framework of this essay is the interest of professional drone pilots to carry out drone flight missions in their business. In the drone branch there exists a fear that the broad application of the camera surveillance law leading to cameras on drones being called “surveillance cameras”, can give the public negative associations which will damage the development of the profession. The compulsory permit is followed by fees and processing times, which complicates the missions and make them more expensive. The compulsory information that must be given to individuals has in practice been ensured by terms in the permits. Through the principle of overbalance, the possibility for professionals to take on commercial missions has become difficult, because the law only allows for surveillance if it is needed for a social interest. 

In conclusion, the camera surveillance law weighs the interests against each other with different importance in the different elements of the law to find a reasonable balance.},
  author       = {Westermann, Anneli},
  keyword      = {förvaltningsrätt,drönare,personlig integritet,enskildas personliga integritet,kameraövervakningslagen,kameraövervakning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Yrkesmässig fotografering med drönare och skyddet för enskildas personliga integritet},
  year         = {2017},
}